Open Access Original Research Article

Acquisition of Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli Exposed To a Locally Produced Herbal Drug

Monsi, Tombari Pius, Amala, Smart Enoch, Ugoaru, Nkechinyere Francisca

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/34812

Background: Antimicrobial resistance poses great threats to the treatment and eradication of pathogenic microbes. An increasing number of infectious diseases are now becoming difficult to treat in the developing world, but the root of the problems is vaguely known.

Aims: This study aimed at determining the phenotypic properties of Escherichia coli isolates exposed to a locally prepared drug, usually called Goko Alcoholic Bitters (GAB), a commonly consumed herbal medication in Nigeria.

Methods: In order to determine GAB-induced resistance the antimicrobial efficacy of GAB against E. coli isolates was first determined using the disc diffusion method and was compared to a control (Ampicillin). A growth response assay was performed to monitor the response of E. coli exposed to GAB and analyzed by bacterial count on nutrient agar as well as using a spectrophotometer to measure optical density. Finally, GAB-treated E. coli was investigated for drug resistance acquisition using antibiotic discs.

Results: Different concentrations of GAB did not show considerable zones of inhibition compared to the Ampicillin (30 µg) control. The effects of GAB on growth of E. coli showed that the highest concentration (neat concentration = 0.036 g/ml) of GAB inhibited growth of E. coli, but did not completely eliminate bacteria (bacteriostatic). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of surviving E. coli isolates previously exposed to different concentrations of GAB showed significantly reduced sensitivity (P-value=0.01) to Ampicillin compared to untreated E. coli. This implies that resistance has been induced in bacteria by GAB.

Conclusion: This study suggests the possibility of GAB conferring resistance of some Gram-negative such as E. coli against some antibiotics like Ampicillin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phenotypical Characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Strains Isolated in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire)

Nicole Prisca Nieko Dangui Makaya, Nathalie Kouadio Guessennd, Karine Manzan Kossia Gba, Valérie Gbonon, Bertin Konan Tiekoura, Abalé Anatole Toty, Joel Eric Tahou, Simon-Pierre Assavon Nguetta, Mireille Dosso

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/37853

Aims: Objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains expressing antibiotic resistance mechanisms of the family of β-lactams, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones in Abidjan.

Study Design: It is a retrospective study.

Place of Study: Laboratories of Bacteriology and virology of Pasteur Institut, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

Methodology: From January 2012 to December 2015 of P. aeruginosa strains from various hospital departments and pathological products of patients have been identified using conventional methods of Bacteriology and Maldi-Tof. Susceptibility strain to antibiotics was tested using the standard Mueller-Hinton agar diffusion susceptibility test method according to CA-SFM 2015.

Results: Two hundred and eight Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were isolated which 35.83% coming from service of medicine. Among these strains 46.63% were isolated from abscess and 9.62% from urine. Antibiotics resistance profile showed a resistance of preferably β-lactams especially to ticarcillin (30.77%). Colistin was the most active antibiotic. Different types of phenotypes have been identified. Regarding β-lactams, the most observed phenotype were the wild ones with 61.06% of all the strains and 12.02% for the efflux phenotype. For aminoglycosides 69.23% were wild-type and 75.96% were wild type for fluoroquinolones.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Characterization of Non-lactic Bacteria in Lactic Fermented Tigernut-milk Drink and Effect of Ambient and Refrigeration Temperature Storage on Sensory Properties of the Drink Spiced with Ginger and Garlic

N. Maduka

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/37699

Globally, non-dairy products are fast gaining acceptability comparable to dairy products in order to satisfy certain individuals with dietary limitations. Natural food additives such as ginger and garlic are preferable to chemically synthesized food additives and flavour enhancers. Sensory acceptability of non-dairy products is influenced by fermentation. Tigernut-milk drink was fermented using lactic starter culture isolated from ‘ogi’ for 72 h at 45°C. Surviving non-lactic bacteria in the lactic fermented drink which might not function as a probiotic in humans was identified using molecular characterization. The lactic fermented tigernut-milk drink was separately spiced with 3%, 5% ginger; 3%, 5% garlic. The products were stored at ambient (28±2°C) and refrigeration (4±2°C) temperature for 8 weeks based on a predetermined shelf life. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain D203 (SUB2424304 MA  KY630545), Bacillus methylotrophicus strain XJAJ2 (SUB2424304 MG KY630549), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain BA-07 (SUB2424304 MB  KY630546), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain WS-8 (SUB2424304 MD KY630547) and Acinetobacter sp. strain NC 41 (SUB2424304 MF KY630548) are non-lactic bacteria in the tigernut-milk drink. Based on sensory score, the 5% ginger spiced lactic fermented tigernut-milk drink was the most preferred drink. In this study, non-lactic bacteria was identified as being present in lactic fermented tigernut-milk drink of which storage conditions and natural spices incorporated into lactic fermented tigernut-milk drinks influenced the sensory properties of the drinks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of Sutterella in the Stool of Egyptian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Nancy Younis Omar, Shwikar M. Abdelsalam Ahmed, Hanan Azouz, Sarah Magdy Abdelhamid, Naglaa Moustafa Abdelaziz

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/37988

Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a multifaceted group of neurodevelopmental disorders. Gastrointestinal problems are commonly reported in children with autism and may correlate with autism severity. A recent study reported that Sutterella species were frequently found in individuals with autism that was not found in controls. 

Aim: The aim of the present study was to study the role of Sutterella species in Egyptian children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs).

Methods: Thirty children diagnosed with ASDs according to DMS-V criteria aged between 2.5-8 years old together with a cross matching control group of 30 healthy neurotypical children were included in the present study. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed with a modified six-item GI Severity Index (6-GSI) questionnaire. Stool specimens were taken for detection of Sutterella by the Conventional PCR using primers that amplify a 260-bp region spanning the variable regions from V6 to V8 of the 16S rRNA gene.

Results: Sutterella species was detected in 24 cases out of 30 ASD patients (80%), and in 11 (36.7%) out of the control cases. There was no significant correlation between the presence of Sutterella and the severity of ASD or GSI.

Conclusion: These results indicate that Sutterella species may have a role in ASD.

Open Access Review Article

Food and Health Potentials of Exopolysaccharides Derived from Lactobacilli

Priyanka Singh, Pinki Saini

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/36935

A biofilm is any group of microorganism in which cells stick to each other on a surface. While forming these biofilms microorganisms excrete out extracellular polymeric substances and form a film like structure around them. These extracellular polymeric substance are generally composed of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides. The interest has been increased now in exploring valuable EPS due to its various industrial applications, and hence attention on EPS-producing biofilm-forming bacteria has also been greatly enhanced. The wide structural, physical and rheological diversity and other unique properties of EPS produced by biofilm-forming bacteria make it industrially and biotechnologically important. EPS has already been widely used as bioflocculants, bioabsorbents, encapsulating materials, heavy metal removing agents, drug delivery agents, ion exchange resins, and a natural immunomodulator. In addition, the distinct biophysicochemical properties of bacterial EPS proves its importance in the food industry as viscosifying, stabilizing, emulsifying, antioxidant and antibiofilm agents.