Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Optimization of Cultural Parameters on Exobiopolymer Production by Microbial Isolates and Their Application in Wastewater Treatment

Gboyega Ebenezer Adebami, Bukola Christiana Adebayo-Tayo, Akinyemi Akinniyi Akinyugha

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/36307

The optimization of culture media and conditions for efficient production of exopolymers by microorganisms cannot be overemphasized. As such, this work investigated the effect of optimizing culture media on bioflocculant production using Alcaligenes aquatilis AP4 and Bacillus clausii NB2 isolated from wastewater samples. It also studied the application of the resulting bioflocculants for treatment of wastewater. The basal medium used for the batch fermentation was supplemented with different concentrations of carbon and nitrogen sources. The bioflocculants produced were tested on kaolin solution, brewery and palm-oil effluents in concentrations ranging from 100-1000 mg/L. It was observed that optimization of culture media by the two strains had a significant effect (P≤0.05) on bioflocculant production. At 72 hours of incubation, 15.0 and 20.0g/l glucose concentration gave the best conditions for bioflocculant production by isolates AP4 and NB2 respectively. In addition, 0.50 and 0.30 g/l of inorganic nitrogen source ((NH4)2SO4) and 0.70g/L of organic nitrogen (Urea) were required by both isolates. 10 and 15ml/L of bioflocculant dosage respectively gave the best flocculating activities. The ability of the bioflocculants to flocculate kaolin solution, brewery wastewater and palm-oil effluent were confirmed. In addition, the bioflocullants also showed a tremendous ability to reduce COD and turbidity of wastewater.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mycodegradation of Crude Petroleum Oil by Locally Marine Candida tropicalis

Khouloud M. I. Barakat

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/37082

Aims: A great demand for crude oil as a source of energy has resulted in an increase in its production, which in turn a gross pollution of the environment. In this study, isolation of local marine yeast with a high potency in petroleum oil biodegradation was the target.

Place and Duration of Study: Samples were collected from oil-spilled seawater in Shalateen, Red Sea, Egypt.

Methodology: Redox indicator 2, 6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP) and oil extract dichloromethane were used for biodegradable crude oil verification. GC-MS analysis of the residual degraded oil was carried out during the biodegradation process. Biotoxicity of residual oil extracts was performed at interval time (0, 6th and 12th day). Bioaugmentation process was accomplished to imitate application on polluted site and determine biodegradable oil activities for both amended and non- amended polluted water samples (either under sterile or non-sterile conditions).

Results: Local marine Candida tropicalis strain was isolated and identified using partial sequence of 18sRNA gene. C. tropicalis was significantly (< 0.05) capable to remove 98.63±0.73% crude oil (50% v/v) after 12 days of incubation at 25°C. Using GC-MS analysis, marine yeast isolate was capable of degrading the aliphatic fractions in crude oil, where almost hydrocarbons peaks were consumed during the degradation process. Using Artemia salina as a biomarker to test the toxic effect of residual oil extracts at interval time (0, 6th and 12th day), compared with the blank and control test, revealed that no-toxic intermediates or end products were detected. Non-sterile non-amended culture significantly (p < 0.05) showed 94.23±0.93% oil removal followed by non-sterile amended culture 65.5±7.7%.

Conclusion: These data demonstrated that the prospect in protecting the environment from oil pollution achieves after the application of marine C. tropicalis isolate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Frequency of Occurance of Brucellosis in Goats in Ludhiana District of Punjab State of India

Neharika Saxena, B. B. Singh, J. P. S. Gill, R. S. Aulakh

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/35974

We investigated the frequency of Brucellosis in goats in Ludhiana district of Punjab state of India because it is of great public health concern yet there is hardly any report in this regard from this region recently. A total of 191 serum samples of goats from slaughter houses were analyzed with RBPT, STAT, MAT and ELISA. Out of these, 31 goats were positive for Brucellosis by one or more of these tests. Among positives, 14 were detected by RBPT, 17 by STAT, 21 by MAT, and 21 by ELISA; 10 samples were positive and 160 negative by all methods. ELISA and MAT detected highest number of samples followed by STAT and RBPT. Frequency of Brucellosis in goats in Ludhiana was found to be 5.23% by RBPT and ELISA. This is alarming considering the zoonotic potential of the disease, handling of raw milk and goat mutton and consumption of goat cheese in this region. The mean titers of anti-Brucella antibodies in goats were 36.66±16.32 by STAT and 49.16±29.47 by MAT, with non-significant difference by ‘t’ test. Thus, Brucellosis is prevalent in a small proportion of goat population in Ludhiana and needs regular monitoring to enable effective measures for its control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Animal Trypanosomosis in Kaura Local Government Area, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Anthony John Dadah, Eugene Ifeanyi Ikeh, Grace Ayanbimpe, Samuel Olatunbosun Omotainse, Peter Matakai Dede, Augustine Chinyere Igweh

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/35438

A survey of animal trypanosomosis in Kaura LGA of Kaduna State was undertaken. Blood samples were collected from 635 animals in five Districts of the LGA. The blood samples collected from different species comprising of 424 cattle, 131 sheep and 80 goats. The samples were examined by wet film (WF), haematocrit centrifugation technique (HCT), buffy coat method (BCM) and thick film (ThF). An overall prevalence rate of 9.4% was recorded in the study. Of this, T. vivax accounted for 7.9% while T. congolense accounted for 1.5%. No T. brucei species was encountered. A number of other haemoparasites were also encountered in the study. These include Babesia 8(1.5%), Anaplasma 8(1.5%) and microfilaria of Onchocerca42(7.9%). The prevalence rates recorded in this study has made it imperative to recommend that Government and policy makers should attach more importance to the problem of animal trypanosomosis. Furthermore, herd owners and villagers should be educated on the importance of cooperation with Veterinary or Livestock Officers in the control of animal trypanosomosis in their communities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Co-inoculation with Pseudomonas koreensis and Rhizobia on Growth, Nodulation and Yield of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

Sahar El-Nahrawy, Alaa El-Dein Omara

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/37422

The establishment of nodulation, nitrogen fixation and productivity in legumes is affected by specificity of inoculant’s strain and effectiveness as well as interactions with rhizosphere microorganisms. This study aimed to isolate and identify Pseudomonas isolates and investigates the effect of Rhizobium - Pseudomonas co-inoculation on growth, nodulation and yield of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cv. Nebraska under greenhouse and lyzemeter conditions. In total, 7 Pseudomonas isolates were isolated from clay soil and evaluated as co-inoculation by measuring the symbiotic N2-fixation parameters under greenhouse. The nine treatments consisted of (seven Pseudomonas isolates (PS1-PS7) combinations with R. leguminosarium sembiovar phaseoli (TAL-3612), one inoculated with R. leguminosarium sembiovar phaseoli (TAL-3612), and one control). One isolate (PS7) exhibited the highest values of growth, symbiosis, photosynthetic and nitrogen content. Based on 16S rRNA sequence, this strain was shown to belong to Pseudomonas koreensis.

Lyzemeter experiment was carried out as complete randomized block designed which consisted of four treatments; T1= Control, T2= Inoculation with R. leguminosarium sembiovar phaseoli (TAL-3612), T3= Inoculation with P. koreensis, and T4= T2+T3 with 5 replicates. Co-inoculation treatment significantly enhanced plant height, nodulation, dry biomass and increased macroelements content (N, P and K) and microelements content (Zn, Mn, Fe and Cu) over single inoculation and control at 30 and 60 days of sowing. The treatments Tand T3 recorded the highest values at all growth stages, they recorded 241.00 and 225.66 μg TPF g-1 soil day-1 at 30 days and 249.33 and 235.00 μg TPF g-1 soil day-1 at 60 days and 203.66 and 179.66 μg TPF g-1 soil day-1 at harvest for dehydrogenase activity. Also, phosphatase activity in soil generally reduced with the aging of the plant. Similar trend are showed for seed yield and quality assessment.

Therefore, co-inoculation with R. leguminosarium sembiovar phaseoli and P. koreensis could be an effective biofertilization for common bean plant production.