Open Access Short Research Article

First Detection of Ketoreductase in the Genome of Rapid Growing Environmental Mycobacterial Strains in Cote D’ivoire

Coulibaly Kalpy Julien, Vakou N’dri Sabine, Coulibaly N’Golo David, Djaman Allico Joseph, Dosso Mireille

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/35752

Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), the causative agent of Buruli ulcer (BU), skin disease, is considered to be an environmental pathogen. The pathogenic virulence of MU is being linked to the expression of toxin called Mycolactone. The ketoreductase (KR) gene, is one of the synthesis genes of mycolactone enzymes previously found in M. ulcerans. Genetic analyses using variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU) have shown high diversity in M. ulcerans and in mycolactone producing Mycobacteria (MPMs).

Aim: The purpose of this study is to detect ketoreductase gene in the genome of environmental mycobacteria strain, apart the M. ulcerans, from aquatic environments in Côte d’Ivoire.

Place and Duration of the Study: The analysis of the samples took place in the laboratories of Institut Pasteur de Côte d’Ivoire in Abidjan City between June 2014 and December 2015. Sampling was done in some hypoendemic and hyperendemic sites of Buruli Ulcer of Côte d’Ivoire.

Methodology: A total of 473 samples were collected comprising of 251 waters and 222 sediments based on sampling sites. PCR diagnostics using IS2404 and KR were performed on strains.

Results: 20% fast growing isolated mycobacteria species including Mycobacterium mucogenicum,Mycobacterium peregrinum and Mycobacterium sp. was found carrying the IS2404 gene previously found in M. ulcerans. 9.23% of strains carried the ketoreductase (KR) genes, one of the synthesis of mycolactone enzyme.

Conclusion: The results of this study proved the existence of ketoreductase (KR) genes in rapidly- growing mycobacteria. This study is one of the steps taken in order to understand different skin infections encountered in Côte d’Ivoire.

Open Access Short Research Article

Microorganisms Isolated during Fermentation of Sorghum for Production of Akamu (A Nigerian Fermented Gruel)

O. H. Ekwem, B. N. Okolo

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/35601

Aim: The aim of this study is to isolate microorganisms present during fermentation of sorghum for production of akamu.

Place and Duration: The study was done at Nsukka, Enugu State for a period of ten weeks.

Methodology: The production processes of two local producers were monitored. They were designated as P1 and P2. Samples were taken at each stage of the production process and inoculated on different microbial culture media. Counts were taken after incubation to ascertain the microbial load. Biochemical tests were done to identify the isolated organisms.

Results: From the grains no coliform was isolated, but the presence of coliform was noticed after 24 h steeping and was detected throughout the production. Lactic acid bacteria were also isolated and they significantly increased throughout the production process confirming them as major players in the fermentation of these cereals. The lactic acid bacteria were identified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobaciluus plantarum Lactobacillus fermentum and L. casei. The yeasts isolated were identified as Saccharomyces spp and Candida spp. The fungi were identified as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium spp and Fusarium spp. Eschericia coli, Stapylococcus, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas were 

Open Access Original Research Article

Physiochemical Parameters of Stored Honey Samples and Their Combined Effect with Antibiotics on Clinical Isolates

O. E. Agbagwa, B. Ekiyor, I. S. Worenwu

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/35420

Aims: The objective of the study is to determine the effect of storage on the physicochemical parameters of honey samples and their combined effect with antibiotics on clinical isolates from wound swab.

Study Design: It is a retrospective study.

Place and Duration of Study: The microbiological aspect of study was carried out in the medical microbiology laboratory while the physicochemical parameters was carried out in plant science and biotechnology laboratory all of the University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria from 2014 to 2016.

Methodology: Three brands of honey sourced from Abia state (Sample A), Delta state (Sample B) and Enugu state (Sample C) of Nigeria screen for their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (sourced from different wound swabs) using Agar well diffusion method at various concentration ranging from 100%, 80% and 60%. The result indicated that each of their effects was concentration dependent as all the three honey samples exerted a full inhibition of bacterial growth at the highest concentration tested (100%). More so, the inhibitory effect was clearer with concentration of 80% than 60% and this was most evident in the case of sample C and Sample A as compared to sample B. Again, the single effect of the antibiotic: Rifampicin tested using Disc diffusion method recorded no sensitivity among all the E.coli and P.aeruginosa isolates and are thus rifampicin resistant. Synergistic testing of rifampicin and honey was done using the disc diffusion method. Though, considerable zones of inhibition were observed but when the combined effect of Rifampicin and Honey was evaluated with the single effect of honey, the former inhibitory values were virtually lower than the latter, thus indicating antagonism instead of synergism. These findings require further study to be done in order to spotlight the underlying mechanism of this antagonist interaction in respect to Nigeria and compare with other antibiotics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bonny Light Crude Oil Degradative Potental of Species of Citrobacter

Abigail Nkanang, Sylvester Peter Antai, Atim David Asitok

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/35828

Of the diverse hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria isolated from crude oil polluted IKO River estuarine and freshwater ecosystems, the bacterial isolate, ESW1 and FSW2 identified as Citrobacter amalonaticus strain – FSW2 and Citrobacter amalonaticus strain - ESW1.These efficiently degrade Bonny light crude oil sample recording 82.1 and 69.2% degradation respectively after 28 days of incubation. Biodegradability of the components of Bonny light crude oil was determined by gas chromatographic analysis. The chromatographic analysis after 28 days of incubation at 28°C also revealed that during the degradation of Bonny light crude oil, there was a decrease of the total hydrocarbon content (THC) from 10,906.9 mg L⁻¹ to 1,947.4 mg L⁻¹ and 3,357.9 mg L⁻¹ respectively by FSW2 and ESW1. These results suggest that Citrobacter amalonaticus is a good candidate for microbial seeding of Bonny light crude oil polluted aquatic ecosystem.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Bacterial Isolates Cultured from Urine Samples of HIV Seropositive Pregnant Women

O. V. Olagoke, A. B. Aborisade, A. D. Olasupo

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/35262

This study evaluated the antibiotic resistance pattern of some bacterial isolates cultured from urine samples of HIV seropositive pregnant women that attended antenatal clinic of the Ondo State Specialist hospital, Akure. The study determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of some antibiotics used against these bacterial isolates. The results showed the MIC and MBC values obtained for augmentin were found to be highest in Staphylococcus aureus (22.8 mg/mL) and lowest against Escherichia coli (1.43/2.85 mg/mL). The MIC and MBC values of all the antibiotics used against S. aureus isolates ranged from 0.004/0.008 mg/mL to 22.8 mg/mL. The MIC and MBC values of all the antibiotics tested against E. coli isolates ranged from 0.008/0.016 to 11.4/12.5 mg/mL, while the MIC and MBC values of all the antibiotics tested against Pseudomonas spp ranged from 0.391/0.781 mg/mL to 11.4/12.5 mg/mL. Among all the antibiotics used, ciprofloxacin was more effective against the bacterial isolates tested. The study concluded that most of the bacterial isolates cultured in this study were multi-resistant to different antibiotics tested in vitro.