Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Soluble Inducible T‑cell Co‑stimulator (sICOS) as a Prognostic Biomarker for Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus

Rasha Alm El-Din, Hanan El-Bassat, Mohamed El-Bedewy

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/35995

Aim of the Work: This study aimed to investigate the serum level of sICOS molecule in chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) patients and its association with pathological injury and HCV viral load in chronic hepatitis C patients to evaluate sICOS molecule as a novel biomarker for HCV replication, and disease progression.

Patients and Methods: The study included 40 chronic HCV-infected patients divided into two groups; group I 20 patients suffering of chronic HCV without cirrhosis, group II 20 patients with cirrhosis and group III composed of 10 healthy controls. Serum level of sICOS was analyzed by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). HCV viral load was estimated in all patients using real time PCR. The correlation between serum sICOS) and HCV viral load was studied.

Results: Viral load in group I ranged from 401.11 to 880.000 IU/ml with a mean value of       521.727 ±152.225 and group II ranged from 315.49 to 1.110.000 IU/ml with a mean value of 603.298± 207.2. regard level of sICOS; it was significantly elevated in chronic HCV patients as its mean level in group I was 56.35 ± 6.75%, in group II was 69.4± 6,004% and in group III was 32±6.61% with P-value <0.001 (significant). In chronic HCV infection sICOS was positively correlated with HCV viral load.

Conclusion: sICOS serum level significantly higher in chronic HCV patients than normal healthy individuals. sICOS level in the serum was highly correlated with HCV viral load in chronic HCV-infected patients, which made sICOS a novel indicator to evaluate HCV replication and disease progression in chronic hepatitis C patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Activities of Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus pentosus Isolated from the Liquor of Fermented Maize (Omidun) against Diarrheal Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi

Grillo, Joseph Adebayo, Opere, Bolanle, Oluwagbemiga, Caleb

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/35537

Aim: This study investigated the antimicrobial activities of Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus pentosusisolated from the liquor (“Omidun”) of fermented maize against Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi.

Place and Duration of Study: Lagos State University, Microbiology Department, Microbiology Laboratory, between 2015 – 2016.

Study Design: The study is an original experimental research paper.

Methods: Eight  L. brevis and 6 L. pentosus strains were isolated from the liquor of 72 h fermented maize and identified using standard biochemical techniques including the Analytical Profile Index (API 50CHL).  Cell – free extracts of the isolates were obtained by centrifugation at 9000 rpm for 25 minutes, followed by filtration using Millipore filter. Sensitivity of the test bacteria; E. coli and S. typhi to the cell – free extracts and selected antibiotics was determined using the agar diffusion technique.

Results: Cell – free extracts of the L. brevis and L. pentosus inhibited the growth of E. coli and S. typhi with zones of inhibition ranging from 21 – 24 mm and 16 – 25 mm respectively. The lactobacilli exerted greater inhibitory effect on S. typhi with greatest inhibition zones (IZ) of 25 (by L. pentosus CI1) and 24 mm (by L. brevis CI1) respectively than E. coli with greatest IZ of 18 (by L. pentosus CI1) and 22 mm (by L. brevis CI1) respectively. Both E. coli and S. typhi were susceptible to tetracycline with IZ of 20mm and 24mm respectively but resistant to co-trimoxazole, augmentin, nitrofurantoin and gentamicin and exhibited intermediate resistance to amoxicillin, pefloxacin, clotrimazole and ofloxacin. Escherichia coli exhibited intermediate resistance to ciprofloxacin (IZ = 16 mm) while S. typhi was resistant (IZ = 18 mm). 

Conclusion: This study indicated that L. brevis and L. pentosus associated with liquor of fermented maize could be sources of antimicrobial metabolites which can be formulated into natural antidiarrheal products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Carbapenem-hydrolyzing Oxacillinase Genes in Clinical Isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii

Mona Embarek Mohamed, Alaa Thabet Hassan, Soheir Mostafa Kasem Ahmed

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/34884

Aims: We aimed in this study to detect the prevalence of carbapenem-hydrolyzing oxacillinase genes among Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates recovered from Assiut University Hospitals, Egypt.
Methods: The antimicrobial susceptibilities of 23 non-repetitive Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates collected from patients with multiple types of infections were determined. Amplification of blaOXA-23, blaOXA-51, and blaOXA-58 genes was performed by PCR.

Results: Acinetobacter baumannii isolates showed high resistance to carbapenems and other antibiotics. Eleven (48%) isolates were extensively drug resistant and 12 (52%) isolates showed pandrug resistance. Among 23 Acinetobacter baumannii strains; oxacillinase genes were detected in 19 (83%) strains, none of the examined genes were found in 4 (17%) strains. Twelve (52%), 9 (39%), and 4 (17%) isolates harbored blaOXA-51, blaOXA-23, and blaOXA-58 genes, respectively, either in single form (12 isolates; 52%) or combined (7 isolates; 30%). blaOXA-producers associated with longer hospital stay and poor outcome. A. baumannii isolates expressed blaOXA-23 and blaOXA-58 genes, had higher MIC for carbapenems than blaOXA-51 gene.

Conclusion: We concluded that, the presence of oxacillinase genes, especially blaOXA-23 and blaOXA-58, may convey resistance to carbapenems in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates and are associated with high comorbidities and poor outcome in patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Oral Microbial Ecology of Selenomonas noxia and Scardovia wiggsiae

Steven McDaniel, Jaydene McDaniel, Amy Tam, Karl Kingsley, Katherine M. Howard

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/36110

Objectives: Selenomonas species such as S. noxia are associated with poor oral health and oral prevalence of this organism may be useful as a biomarker to determine patient oral health. Current studies are now revealing novel insights into the epidemiology of the newly discovered oral cariogenic organism Scardovia wiggsiae (SW), although few studies have explored the oral microbial ecology with respect to this oral pathogen. Based upon the lack of information regarding the oral microbial ecology, the primary objective of this study was to screen an existing saliva repository to more accurately assess the microbial flora present (or absent) including SN and SW.

Experimental Methods: Previously collected saliva samples were evaluated for the DNA isolation and qPCR screening protocol. A total of 42 samples were identified and processed from both pediatric (n=28/42 or 67%) and adult (n=14/42 or 33%) patients. 

Results: The results of this screening demonstrate that of the SW-positive samples (n=27/42 or 64%) none harbored the oral microbe Selenomonas noxia (SN). Conversely, SN was identified only within the subset of SW-negative samples (n=15/42 or 35%). In addition, although Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (AA) was only present in a small subset of samples – this organism was only found among SW-positive samples.  Other organisms, including T. forsythia (TF), and F.nucleatum (FN) were present in both SW-positive and SW-negative samples although their prevalence differed greatly.

Conclusions: This study may be the first to present oral microbial data which suggest SW may participate in direct or indirect bacterial interactions that influence the potential for other organisms to flourish within the oral microbiome. These data suggest that SN and SW may occupy distinct, non-overlapping niches, which may differ significantly from the interactions observed with AA, FN, and TF. Further research will be needed to more fully elucidate these interactions and to explore the potential ramifications for oral microbial ecology and the implications for predictive saliva screening.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hydrocarbons Degrading Potential of Stimulated Cultures of Bacteria Isolated from Humic Fresh Water Sediment of Eniong River in the Niger Delta of Nigeria

Umana, Senyene Idorenyin, Uko, Mfoniso Peter, Bassey, Maria Paul, Essien, Joseph Peter

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2017/v21i35001

The Hydrocarbons degrading potential of stimulated cultures of bacteria isolated from humic fresh water sediment of Eniong River in the Niger Delta of Nigeria was studied. Preliminary screening of the humic hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial isolates revealed that among the 5 bacterial isolates (HSC1, HSC2, HSC3, HSC4 and HSC5), isolate HSC1 exhibited the strongest ability to utilize crude oil and was characterized to be Bacillus subtilis. In-vitro analysis of crude oil utilization of Bacillus subtilis- HSC1 when energized with various concentrations of sugar (glucose and sucrose) revealed variable levels of hydrocarbons utilization by monoculture of B. subtilis and enhanced degradation with biostimulation. The results of indirect assessment using the total viable cells revealed that the microbial biomass increased over time during degradation. The rate of increase was apparently higher in cultures stimulated with various concentrations of sugar (glucose and sucrose) than in the control and best growth were recorded on the 12th day when treated with 10% of glucose. Analysis of the optical density of the Bacillus subtilis during the degradation process revealed that the optical density increased with time. The pH of the test substrates decreased over time indicating a higher catabolic activity. The increase in acidity was higher in 15% and 20% glucose supplemented medium. The nutrient addition increased the bacterial cell numbers, optical density as well as the acidity (high decrease in the pH) of the test media between days 9 and 15 when compared with the rate derived from the test medium. In vitro degradation study carried out for the 15 days showed that, the degradation of crude oil and its component by B. subtilis was faster when stimulated with the different concentrations of sugar than when un-stimulated. The result showed a remarkable reduction in the total petroleum content of the test substrates treated with glucose and sucrose. The best results were obtained by treatment with 1 and 5% levels of the stimulants. At this level, the TPH content was reduced from 15.81 mg/kg observed for the control to 10.19 mg/kg (49.92% degradation) and 8.03 mg/kg (60.52% degradation) obtained from substrates stimulated with 5% glucose and 1% sucrose respectively. The high hydrocarbon degradation by stimulated culture of Bacillus subtilis- HSC1 implies that biostimulation can be harnessed for bioremediation purposes.