Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Ascorbic Acid and Levamisole on the Course of Newcastle Disease in Adult Japanese Quails

Bonodong Zongnukuu Guri, Shehu Usman Hassan, A. D. El-Yuguda, Metinou Koumetio Sidouin, U. I. Ibrahim, A. W. Mbaya

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/35440

Aims: To investigate the effects of ascorbic acid, levamisole and their combination on the course of Newcastle disease in adult Japanese quails.

Study Design: Randomized controlled trial.

Methodology: The study was conducted in the University of Maiduguri laboratory in the North East city of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. One hundred (100) apparently healthy eight (8) weeks old unvaccinated quails were randomly grouped 1-5 of twenty (20) birds each. Four groups (2-5) were challenged with 0.2 ml Viscerotropic Velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus (VVNDV) of chicken origin via oral route. The virus [a viral titer 106.5 per ml of physiologic saline solution (PSS)] was obtained from the National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI), Vom, Nigeria. Group 1 was maintained as negative control while group 2 was positive control. Groups 3, 4 and 5 were treated with ascorbic acid, levamisole and both respectively. Clinical signs and lesions from dead quails were observed in infected groups. Geometric mean titers of virus antibodies were calculated and then subjected to ANOVA.

Results: Depression, anorexia, diarrhea, respiratory distress, drop in egg production and nervousness were observed in all infected groups. Drop in egg production was highest in levamisole-treated birds. Positive control birds had the highest morbidity of 45% followed by ascorbic acid-treated (35%), levamisole-treated (25%) and ascorbic acid-levamisole-treated (25%) birds. Ascorbic acid-levamisole-treated birds recorded 5% mortality whilst the other infected bird groups had 10% mortality each.

The GMT of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) antibodies revealed that positive-control birds could not attain the protective antibody titer of 5.2, whereas ascorbic acid, levamisole and ascorbic acid-levamisole treated birds attained protective titers 6.1, 7.5 and 11.3 respectively.

Conclusion: Treatment with ascorbic acid and levamisole mitigated morbidity and mortality in velogenic NDV infection, while the combination of ascorbic acid and levamisole had a better outcome (synergistic effect). 

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of C19 Steroid Intermediates during Microbial Transformation of Phytosterol

S. O. Jimoh, F. O. Ajibise

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/34869

Aim: To assay for C19 steroid intermediates during biotransformation of phytosterol.

Study of Design: Pretreatment and processing of wheat bran and rice bran, Sulphate-phosphate-ferric technique, phytosterol screening, fermentation process, enzymatic assay and steroid intermediate assay.

Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Unit, Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, Fountain University Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria between  April, 2015 and March, 2016.

Methodology: Preliminary screening of agricultural residues (wheat bran and rice bran) for presence of phytosterols was determined using Sulphate-phosphate-ferric technique. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was screened for its ability to transform phytosterol to steroid intermediates after fermentation process using gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GCFID) and enzymes such as 3-ketosteroid-9-hydroxylase (Ksh) and 3-ketosteroid-1-dehydrogenase (KstD) required for transformation were also assayed through Ion exchange and gel permeation chromatography respectively.

Results: Steroid intermediates such as Boldenone, Testosterone, 4-androstene-3, 17-dione (AD), Androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (ADD), 9-OH-Testosterone and 9-OH-AD were obtained from crude extract after fermentation using GCFID. The result shows the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to transform rice bran and wheat bran phytosterols to precursors for synthesis of steroid hormones.

Conclusion: Sterol uptake takes place via the direct contact between the cells and the sterol particles, thus Saccharomyces cerevisiae ability to transform phytosterols to steroids shows its adaptive mechanism which allows microorganisms to use minimally water-soluble hydrocarbons as carbon sources.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Bio-insecticidal Property of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains Isolated from Western Ghats Soil

M. Sivaji, D. Girija

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/32594

Morphological and cultural characterization of the native twenty isolates obtained from Western Ghats of Kerala, produced creamy white and puffy colonies. The colonies were circular or irregular and flat. Margins were either entire or undulate. Biochemical characterization of native Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) isolates showed that all the isolates were positive for esculinase and starch hydrolysis tests and gave negative response to gelatin hydrolysis and Voges-Proskauer (VP) test. Shape of crystal proteins were studied in native Bt isolates by staining with Coomassie brilliant blue. The shape of proteins varied from irregular, spherical and composite, but the spherical shape was more common. Of the total of 20 isolates analyzed, 12 isolates produced spherical crystal proteins and 6 isolates produced composite crystal protein. Bioassay of selected four native Bt isolates (Bt-23 Bt-133 Bt-190 Bt-242) and reference strain 4Q1 was done against Drosophila melanogaster. Lethal Concentration (LC50) value was the lowest with the reference strain 4Q1 (6.05 × 108 spores per mL), indicating high level of toxicity. Among the native isolates, Bt-23 recorded the lowest value of LC50 (7.39 × 108 spores per mL). Highest LC50 value of 8.64 × 108 spores per mL was recorded by Bt-242.

Open Access Original Research Article

Immobilization and Thermostability of Manganese Peroxidase from Trichoderma harzianum

Hamed M. El-Shora, Mohsen E. Ibrahim, Mohamed R. Elmekabaty

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/35754

The aim of the present investigation was to isolate Manganese peroxidase (MnP) (EC from Trichoderma harzianum. The optimal pH and temperature for the enzyme production were 5.0 and 30°C. The best carbon and nitrogen sources were sucrose and yeast extract. The best production of MnP was formed at the 5th day of growth using 1 and 5 mM of Mn2+. The enzyme was immobilized on luffa, ceramic, alginate and chitosan and the percentages of immobilization were 40.1%, 15.9%, 82.1% and 91.3% respectively. The immobilized enzyme was expressed better stability at 50°C specially that immobilized at chitosan. Thus, the present results suggest that Trichoderma harzianum is a good candidate for production of manganese peroxidase which can be used in many biotechnological applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological and Biochemical Analysis of Soymilk Produced and Sold within Calabar Metropolis

Asuquo, Nkoyo Edet, Antai, Slyvester Peter

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/29571

This study was aimed at evaluating the microbiological and biochemical content of soymilk produced and sold locally within Calabar metropolis. Samples of soymilk were obtained from five areas in Calabar metropolis namely: Bogobiri, Watt market, Akim barracks, Army barracks and Marian market. Standard microbiological techniques including the pour plate method and relevant biochemical tests were used to isolate, characterize and identify the found microrganisms. The probable bacterial isolates were identified as: Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Klebsiella species while the fungi species were that of Yeast and Aspergillus. There was significant differences in bacterial and fungal count across the locations sampled (P<0.05). The mean bacterial counts were highest in samples from Army barracks 6.90±0.01x10cfu/ml and lowest in Marian market 4.80±0.04x108 cfu/ml while the mean fungal count was highest in Army barracks 6.50±0.17x108 cfu/ml and lowest in Akim barracks 3.50±0.22x108 cfu/ml. Proximate composition analysis of the foods sampled revealed high carbohydrate content (41.32±0.04% - 53.70±0.04%), lipid content (1.50±0.03% - 5.00±0.04%) and fibre content (1.00±0.08% - 1.60±0.04%) while the range for other proximate composition indices such as ash (1.60±0.01% - 3.10±0.02%), moisture (31.80±0.04% - 36.50±0.15%), and protein content (10.68±0.30% - 19.08±0.30%) were relatively low. Elemental analysis of the soymilk samples showed relatively good amounts of calcium, zinc, iron and sodium which were within the permissible limits set by WHO guidelines for food standard. Lead, Mercury and Cadmium were not detected indicating that the source of water was portable and the soil or cultivation was devoid of harmful/toxic metals. Samples from Marian market however had the highest nutritional and mineral composition.