Open Access Original Research Article

Detection and Antibiogram of Urinary Tract Infection among Out-patients Attending a Tertiary Health Facility in Port-Harcourt, Southern Nigeria

Promise Ifunanya Ohagim, Grace Micheal Ikon, Ukemeobong Aniebiat Okon, Ubong Ekerenam Etang, Chidinma Loveth Ikenyi, Precious Chika Matthew

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/35429

This study was carried out to explore microbial pathogens implicated in urinary tract infection (UTI), their antibiotic susceptibility and multi-drug resistant patterns as prevalent in UTI symptomatic and asymptomatic outpatients attending clinic at University of Port-Harcourt teaching hospital. One hundred mid-stream urine samples were collected from consented patients and transported to the microbiology laboratory of University of Port-Harcourt where it was analyzed using standard microbiological methods. A total of 27(27.0%) UTI isolates were obtained with E. coli 7(7.0%), K. pneumoniae 5(5.0%), C. albicans 4(4.0%), S. aureus 3(3.0%), P. aeruginosa, H. alvei and P. mirabilis 2(2.0%) respectively and Klebsiella oxytoca and Enterococcus faecalis 1(1.0%) respectively. There was a preponderance of UTI cases in female patients than male patients and people within the reproductive age of 25-34 years constituted the most risk group. Of the eight antimicrobials tested, high susceptibility pattern was observed for Imipenem 19(82.6%), Gentamycin 14(60.9), Ampicillin and Erythromycin 12(52.2%) respectively, while the least susceptibility pattern was observed in Ciprofloxacin 9(39.1%). All but one of the isolates from E. coli and K. pneumoniae respectively, were multi-drug resistant, while all the S. aureus and P. mirabilis isolates were multi-drug resistant. One isolate from E. faecalis and H. alvei respectively were multi-drug resistant while no multi-drug resistance was obtained from K. oxytoca and P. aeruginosa isolates. Prevention of UTI in the study area can be achieved through good personal hygiene, while its empirical treatment can be achieved with the use of Imipenem, Gentamycin, Ampicillin and Erythromycin as revealed in this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Identification of Potential Gossypol Degrading Fungal Strains from Cotton Growing Soil

Vellaichamy Mageshwaran, Sharmila B. Majee, Kuppusamy Pandiyan

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/35364

Aim: To isolate and identify gossypol degrading fungal strains from cotton growing soil of Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh States of India.

Study Design: Experimental study.

Place and Duration of the Study: Chemical and Biochemical Processing Division, ICAR-Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology, Matunga (E), Mumbai – 400019, India during January to December 2014.

Methodology: The isolation of fungi from soil samples was done by enrichment culture technique using gossypol as a sole carbon and energy source. The fungal isolates were inoculated in cottonseed cake (CSK) and incubated for 48 h at 30°C. The isolates were screened for gossypol detoxification by estimating free and total gossypol level in the fermented CSK. The potential gossypol degrading isolates were identified by 18S rDNA analysis.

Results: Eight isolates (F1 to F8) were identified as potential gossypol degrading strains among the fifty nine isolates obtained. The new fungal isolates from F1 to F8 were identified as  Aspergillus terreus (KP 264957.1), Lichithemia ramosa (KP 264961.1), Alternaria alternata (KP 264960.1), Fusarium equiseti (KP 26459.1), Fusarium chlamydospora (KP 264958.1), Fusarium sp. (KP 209032.1), Fusarium solani (KP 264956.1) and Fusarium thapsinum (KP 264962.1) respectively, based on 18S rDNA analysis. The maximum free and total gossypol reduction (%), 65.2 and 59.8 respectively was observed in Fusarium thapsinum (KP 264962.1) treated CSK. The protein content was higher in fungal treated than untreated CSK.

Conclusion: The present study identifies new fungal strains capable of degrading toxic compound, gossypol in cottonseed cake.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Fermentation and Extrusion on the Nutrient and Anti-nutrient Composition of Soy Beans (Glycine max, L) and Acha (Digitaria exilis Stapf)

Ojokoh Anthony Okhonlaye, Onasanya Taiwo Temitope

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/33263

Aim: Effect of Fermentation and Extrusion on nutrient and anti-nutrient composition of Acha and deffated Soybeans.

Study Design: Four batches of Acha and defatted soy beans flour blends were varied at different ratio (100:0, 70:30 and 50:50). A batch was preconditioned and extruded. Another was fermented for 72 h. The third batch was fermented and extruded. The fourth batch was not fermented or extruded.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology and Fishery Department Federal University of Akure, Ondo State between October 2015 and July 2016.

Methodology: Microbial analysis was carried out using potato dextrose agar, nutrient agar and De man Rogosa agar. pH, temperature and total titratable acidity analysis were carried out. Proximate, mineral composition, nutrient, anti-nutrient, of the blends was also carried out using standard methods.

Results: Fifteen organisms were isolated (Eight bacteria, five moulds and two yeasts) which include Lactococcus sp, Lactobacillus bulgaricusEnterococcusStaphylococcus aureusStreptococcus thermophillusProteus mirabilisLactobacillus brevisPedicoccus sp, Rhizopous stonloniferMucor mucedorAspergillus flavoursPenicillium freguentansFusarium merismoidesSaccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis from all the batches of the sample after fermentation. The pH and titratable acidity (TTA) significantly varied during fermentation. The proximate composition showed an increase in nutritive value of the fermented extruded samples when compared with raw samples. There was significant increase in the mineral composition of the fermented samples when compared with the raw samples. Fermentation and extrution significantly reduced the anti-nutrient content of the samples. No significant difference was recorded in the fiber content of the raw flour blends and extrudates. This study revealed that fermentation and extrusion of acha and soybeans improved the nutritional quality of the samples and reduced the anti- nutrient content, also it can be used in weaning children in developing countries especially Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Acute Invasive Fungal Rhino-sinusitis: Clinical, Microbiological and Pathological Diagnosis

Shawky Elmorsy, Shirien Amin Rakha, Noha Tharwat Abou El- Khier, Safaa Mohamad EL-Ageery, Nawal S. Gouda, Hoda Saleh

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/35241

Background: Acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (AIFRS) is a challenging disorder that is diagnosed frequently in immunocompromised patients with very rapid progression.

Objective: to estimate the burden of AIFRS in Mansoura University Hospitals and to assess the mycological and clinicopathological profile of the disease.

Methods: Specimens were subjected to microbiological and histopathological examinations. Data about demographic characters, underlying diseases, presenting symptoms, signs, surgical interventions, and complications were collected.

Results: Twenty-two patients were diagnosed as AIFRS. Patients were 15 males and 7 females with age ranged from 14 to 55 years. The disease was prevalent among immunocompromised patients (100%). Hematological malignancies were the most common underlying conditions (68.18%), The remaining patients had disorders associated with immunosuppression as solid organ transplantation (18.18%) and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (13.64%). Culture results were positive only in 15 patients (68.18%). Aspergillus species (8/15) were the most common isolated organisms followed by Zygomycetes (7/15).

Conclusions: AIFRS continues to present a challenge to the otolaryngologist who must be highly suspicious at risk patient populations. Histopathological examination had high sensitivity. The isolated organisms were Aspergillus species and Rhizopus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mycological Quality of Relief Maize Meal and Nutritional Supplement of Maize Product (Unimix) in Moyale, Northern Kenya

Samson Chebon, Mohamed Asafa Aila

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/28684

Aims: Determination of mycological quality of relief maize meal and Nutritional supplement of maize product (Unimix) in Moyale, Northern Kenya as regards aflatoxin producing fungi and aflatoxin Contamination.

Study Design: Purposeful sampling technique was applied targeting homesteads depending on relief food supplies.

Place and Duration of Study: Homesteads in Manyatta and Burji regions, Moyale town in   Northern Kenya were sampling sites. Sampling was undertaken in January-February, 2016 while laboratory analysis was in March-April 2016.

Methodology: A total of 32 samples (maize meal: n=20; unimix: n=12) were obtained from homesteads and put in clean paper bags ready for transport to Nairobi for laboratory analysis. Mycological analysis was on Potato Dextrose Agar where fungal load was expressed as Colony forming Units (CFU/g) while aflatoxin quantification applied competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for total aflatoxin levels using Helica Biosystems' kit. Data analysis using student’s t-test and Pearson’s correlation test was undertaken on various variables namely; mean fungal load, mean aflatoxin levels, frequency of fungi and aflatoxins alongside correlation between fungal and aflatoxin levels(P=0.05).

Results: Prevalence of aflatoxin producing fungal spp. among maize meal and Unimix samples were 90% and 0%, respectively with mean fungal load of 288 CFU/g and 27 CFU/g, respectively. The mean fungal load for Unimix samples was 26.7±9.9 CFU/g while for maize meal samples it was 287.7±83.2 CFU/g. Incidence of aflatoxins was in 100% and 91.7% of maize meal and Unimix samples, respectively with the mean contamination levels 6.6 ppb and 3.1 ppb, respectively thereby demonstrating that the difference was not significantly different (P=0.05). Similarly, a negative correlation coefficient (r2= -0.212) was established between fungal and aflatoxin contamination in maize meal (P=0.05). The prevalence of other potential mycotoxigenic fungal spp., Fusarium and Penicillium exhibited similar contamination patterns having been 100% among Maize meal samples, respectively while Unimix lacked any contamination.