Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation of Virulence Determinants of Staphylococcus aureus to the Severity of Diabetic Foot Ulcers in a Tertiary Care Centre, Egypt

Yasmin Nabiel, Ghada Barakat

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/34789

Aim: This study aimed to estimate the correlation of the Staphylococcus aureus virulence determinants to the severity of the diabetic foot ulcers in patients admitted to diabetic foot Unit at Mansoura University Hospitals.

Study Design: A prospective study was performed.

Place of Study and Duration: This study was performed in diabetic foot Unit of Mansoura University hospital, Egypt.

Methodology: The study included 95 patients clinically diagnosed with diabetic foot ulcers from whom swabs were obtained from the foot lesions to be processed followed by detecting virulence determinants in isolated S. aureus by PCR.

Results: Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 34 cases (35.8%). icaA, icaD, pvl and tst genes were detected in 61.8%, 67.6%, 53%, and 32.4% of S. aureus isolates respectively with higher prevalence in isolated strains from more severe infections and results were stastically significant. coa and clfA genes were positive 97.1% and 94.1% isolates respectively.

Conclusion: The results showed that the S. aureus strains causing infections in diabetic foot patients having genes: icaA, icaD, pvl and tst may be correlated to the severity of lesions whereas coa and clfA were not.

Open Access Original Research Article

Intestinal Dysbiosis in Systemic Inflamation and Possibilities of Its Correction with Probiotics

K. Gorobchenko, A. Dyachenko

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/34534

Aims: To estimate intestinal microbial changes and study the efficacy of probiotic preparations in systemic inflammation.

Study Design: Cohort design.

Place and Duration of Study: Sumy State University, Medical Institute. Department of Microbiology and Clinical Immunology, Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education.

Methodology: The study involved 162 patient with chronic infections various sites, including 58 (35.8%) patients with respiratory tract infections, 56 (34.6%) patients with infections of the genitourinary system, and 48 (29.6%) - with purulent inflammatory postoperative complications. We studied the quantitative and qualitative composition of intestinal microflora on the background correction of probiotic preparations.

Results: We have found quantitative and qualitative changes of intestinal microflora in all patients with chronic infections. Dysbiotic changes manifested in reducing the number of major orders symbionts (Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp, Escherichia coli with normal enzymatic properties) and increase the number of pathogenic microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium spp., Candida spp.). In all study groups after using probiotics, the number of pathogenic microorganisms (S. aureus, S. saprophyticus, S. epidermidis, C. albicans, and Cl. perfringens) were decreased and tended to restore normal range of microbial landscape.

Conclusion: So, dysbiotic disorders of the intestine in patients with chronic inflammation characterized by decrease in the number of basic gut symbionts and reducing its protective properties that accompanied the advent of pathogenic microorganisms. In our study probiotics demonstrated statistically significant improvements in the qualitative and quantitative composition of microflora.

Open Access Original Research Article

Traditional and Molecular Identification of Bacterial Contamination from Honey (Processed and Unprocessed) and Their Control by Phytotherapy

Nazish Mazhar Ali, Saiqa Andleeb, Bushra Mazhar, Shaukat Ali, Rozina Ghulam Mustafa, Irsa Shafique, Anum Naseer, Hira Shahzad, Sadia Nazir

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/33389

Honey used as a potential source of medicine traditionally. Today honey is contaminated due to improper handling which leads to cause various infections. So, the aim of current study was to isolate and identify the bacterial contamination from both commercial (processed) and natural (unprocessed) honey of Pakistan. These bacteria were treated with the medicinal plants and antibiotics to cure the infectious diseases. In the present study, bacterial population was investigated from five commercial and five natural honey products. Ten pathogenic bacteria were isolated from all honey products. Only one was isolated from processed honey, while the remaining nine were isolated from unprocessed honey. Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium septicum, Bacillus weihenstephanensis, Clostridium acetobutylicum Proteus mirabilis, Myroides odoratimimus were identified through ribotyping and traditional microbial techniques. They are recognized as a common soil and water dwelling bacteria. Antibacterial effect of medicinal plants and standard antibiotics was evaluated against these pathogens through agar disc diffusion method. Among the tested medicinal plants, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis were strongly inhibited by methanolic extract of N. sativa and Bacillus weihenstephanensis was inhibited by Citrus sinensis. On the other hand, Aloe vera and Cinnamon umverum had no effect on all the tested pathogens. All tested bacterial pathogens were strongly inhibited by medicinal plants as compared to tested antibiotics (Cefixime and ampicillin).  It was concluded that the high number of pathogenic bacteria in unprocessed honey indicated secondary contaminations of honey by poor handling. Phytotherapy indicated that medicinal plants could be used as a potential source of therapeutic agents to prevent the transfer of infectious diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microorganisms Associated with the Production of a Nigerian Fermented Beverage, ‘Agadagidi’

O. Oriola, B. Boboye, F. Adetuyi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/32654

Aim: The microbial types, occurrence, loads and interactions were studied during the production of a Nigerian fermented beverage, ‘Agadagidi’, from overripe plantains.
Place and Duration of Study: Federal University of Technology Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. March- July, 2012.
Methodology: Isolation, enumeration and identification of bacteria and fungi were carried out by using standard pour plate, morphological, biochemical and physiological characterization methods. Antagonistic and mutualistic interactions among the microorganisms were investigated using agar well diffusion method.
Results: Bacillus subtilis, B. megaterium, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus species, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici, L. fermentum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. fumigatus, Penicilium notatum, Trichoderma viridea Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida utilis and Geotrichum species were identified during the production of the beverage. The loads of total bacteria (TB), Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), enterobacteriaceae and fungi of the uncrushed plantain pulp were 2.6 × 107 ± 0.05 cfu/ml, 6.7 × 106 ± 0.05 cfu/ml, 3.8 × 105± 0.05 cfu/ml and 2.0 × 107 ± 0.05 cfu/ml. At 0 hour of fermentation, the loads of total bacteria, fungi and enterobacteriaceae increased. Then after, the total bacteria, enterobacteriaceae and fungi counts decreased to 2.0×105 ± 0.11 cfu/ml, 1.3 × 105± 0.11 cfu/ml and 1.03 × 105 ± 0.05 cfu/ml respectively. In contrast, the LAB cell number increased to 8.6 × 107 ± 0.1cfu/ml at the end (48 hours) of fermentation. The level of the microbial occurrence was 25 to 100% with B. subtilis, L. plantarum, L. mesenteroides, S. cerevisiae and C. utilis occurring as the highest. B. megaterium, E. spp., A. niger and T. viridea occurred least.  There was positive co-existence between Yeast and LAB. The yeasts and LAB exhibited antagonism against other bacteria.
Conclusion: The data obtained in this work has shown some functional microflora and their relationship during the production of “Agadagidi”. This information can contribute to a better understanding of the “Agadagidi” production process for a consistent quality beverage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diversity and Antimicrobial Activity of Hydrobionts Associated Microorganisms from the Sea of Japan with the Occurrence of Tropodithietic Acid Producing Bacteria

L. A. Romanenko, V. V. Kurilenko, N. Yu Chernysheva, N. I. Kalinovskaya, P. S. Dmitrenok, R. S. Popov, V. V. Mikhailov

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/34949

The study was undertaken to survey microorganisms associated with colonial fouling hydrozoans and red alga Polysiphonia sp. collected from the Sea of Japan seashore and to screen them for antimicrobial effects. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences the isolates were assigned to 21 genera of the Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria as the dominant followed by Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Betaproteobacteria; the most shared 98-99% sequence similarity to recognized species recovered from marine sources. Hydrozoan’s and red alga microbial associations were different in their taxonomic compositions at the generic level. Members of the genera Shewanella, Labrenzia and Streptomyces occured in both specimens. Antimicrobial screening revealed 46 strains capable to inhibit growth of two to seven indicatory cultures. Active hydrozoan’s strains were phylogenetically close to Phaeobacter inhibens. Active isolates from red alga were similar to Pseudovibrio ascidiaceicola, and in addition to Paenibacillus xylanexedens and Bacillus murimartini. Streptomyces strains with antimicrobial activity were found in both specimens. Strains Phaeobacter sp. H8 and Pseudovibrio sp. rh17 were selected to be examined for the production of tropodithietic acid, TDA, which is the known antimicrobial metabolite produced by Phaeobacter and Pseudovibrio bacteria. On the basis of spectral analyses both strains were found to produce TDA, which could be responsible for their antimicrobial activity. Our findings demonstrated that hydrozoans and red alga inhabitating the Peter the Great Bay of the Sea of Japan harbor diverse microbial communities with a high proportion of bacteria capable of antimicrobials production, including TDA-producing strains which are conceivable to be of importance for chemical protection of their host-hydrobionts and bacterial relationships in marine shallow environments.