Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated From Different Fermented Milk Products of Turkish Origin

Melihcan Ozteber, Gamze Başbülbül

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/33221

Aims: Lactic acid bacteria isolated from 48 Turkish fermented milk products obtained from local markets, dairies or bazaars were investigated for their resistance of antibiotics including ampicillin, erythromycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, lincomycin, meropenem, ciprofloxacin, teicoplanin, tetracycline and vancomycin.

Place and Duration of Study: Adnan Menderes University Biology Department, Microbiology laboratory, between 2012-2014

Methods: LAB strains, belonging to 14 species of Lactobacillus (n=68), 1 species of Lactococcus (n=16), 5 species of Enterococcus (n=14) and 2 species of Streptococcus (n=17) were isolated and identified at species level by their 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) for 10 antibiotics were determined by agar dilution test using multipoint inoculator. Antibiotic resistance genes for erythromycin [erm(A), erm (B), erm (C)], gentamycin aac(6’) aph(2’’), chloramphenicol (cat), tetracycline [tet(K), tet(L), tet(M), tet(S), tet(Q)] and vancomycin [van(A), van(B), van(C), van(X)] were investigated in strains. Mating experiments were done with E. faecalis JH2-2 to detect the transferability of resistance genes.

Results: Among 115 strains antibiotic resistance was detected against lincomycin (27,8%), tetracycline (20%), ampicillin (13,9%), meropenem (11,3%), gentamycin (10,4%), erythromycin (7,8%), ciprofloxacin (6,1%), chloramphenicol (3,4%), vancomycin (0,87%). While all these strains were susceptible to teicoplanin, 29,5% of isolates were multiple resistant to various antibiotics. The resistance genes aac(6’) aph(2’’), erm(B), tet(L), tet(M) and van(C) were detected in strains of,  Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lb. kefiri, Lc. lactis subsp. lactis, S. lutetiensis, S. macedonicus, E. faecalis, E. gallinarum isolated from some cheeses and one household kefir samples.

Conclusion: Antibiotic-resistant LAB carrying transeferable resistance genes in some Turkish dairy products, may act as a dangerous vehicle for transmission of these traits to the other bacteria by horizontal gene transfer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical and Microbiological Qualities of Water and Soil Samples from Groundnut Oil Producing Industry

C. A. Osunla, A. Bello, D. O. Adejoro, O. A. Makinde

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/26264

Triplicate tap and wastewater samples collected from a groundnut oil producing industry in Akure metropolis, Southwest Nigeria were analysed for physicochemical and microbiological qualities using standard procedure. Adjoining soil samples were aseptically collected and serially diluted for total coliform counts using most probable number method. The range of the physicochemical qualities of the tap water and wastewater are as follows: pH (5.7-6.8), colour (4.98-90.0 HU), nitrite (1.6-20.0 mg/l), alkalinity (0.02-52.0 mg/l), BOD (1.79-2.87 mg/l) and TDS (1.59-33.0 mg/l); while for the soil samples, they are as follows: pH (6.7), alkalinity (32 mg/l), nitrate (9.98 mg/l), phosphate (15 mg/l) and total organic carbon (2.74 mg/l). Total coliforms ranged in the order of 104 to 105 cfu/ml and 104 to 105 cfu/g for tap water and soil samples respectively. The bacterial pathogens recovered from the water and soil samples include: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., Proteus spp., Shigella spp., Enterobacter spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp. and Salmonella spp., while the fungal isolates included Fusarium, spp., Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. We conclude that the groundnut wastewater is important point sources of pollution in surface water with potential public health and ecological risks.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study on Microbiological and Physico-chemical Properties of Three Local Alcoholic Beverages Produced and Consumed in Mombasa County, Kenya

E. W. Mwakio, M. L. Chimbevo, J. B. Malala, H. Makonde, J. M. Kahindo, M. M. Awadh, J. B. Msanzu

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/28061

Physico-chemical properties and micobial contamination of three local brews (Mnazi, Mchuchula and M’bangara) consumed in Mombasa County were assessed. The bacteria concentration enumeration was determined by incubation of each sample for two days at 35°C to 37°C on plates containing colony forming units (CFUs) on Aerobic plate count (APC) agar and Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on Rogosa agar plates. Growth on plates were positive for heterotrophic and LAB bacteria with high levels recorded in 10-2 aliquots of each sample. M’bagara recorded higher levels of LAB (201.0±24.79), with Mnazi and Mchuchula having slightly low levels of LAB of 182.0±26.96 and 129.0±5.20 respectively despite some of the plates not being used for enumeration since they had above 250 CFUs. Yeast detection and enumeration was also determined. Low numbers of yeast cells were recorded in M’bangara (30.0±5.72), with Mchuchula recording the highest number of yeast cells (66.30±3.07). Physico-chemical properties determined included colour, acidity, pH and alcohol in terms of volume i.e Alcohol by Volume (ABV). M’bangara recorded the highest titratable acidity (0.9±0.04), and lowest pH (2.7±0.07) whereas the highest ABV levels were recorded in M’bangara (4.6±0.12). Confirmatory results for total coliforms, feacal coliforms and E. coli indicate the absence of contamination from sewage material. There were significant variation (p>0.05) in terms of physico-chemical properties and microbial contamination in the three analyzed local brews. In this study, local brews consumed in Mombasa County contain non-miocrobial and microbial contaminants which may be related to effects of consumption of these brews.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of the Shelf Life of Soya Bean (Glycine max) Flour

O. T. Akinola, A. A. Owoseni

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/34282

Aim: This work was to investigate the shelf life of fresh and stored soybean flour by isolating resident bacteria and carrying out their proximate analyses. 

Place and Duration of study: Samples were bought from Roundabout market at Iwo, Osun state, Nigeria. An analysis was carried out within 8 month.

Methodology: The bacteria were isolated and identified using standard morphological and biochemical tests. The antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated bacteria was also carried out using standard methods.

Results: Isolated bacteria belonged to genera Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Escherichia and Enterobacter. The number of isolated organisms was higher in all cases in the stored flour sample. The results showed that the percentage of crude protein (37.0 ± 0.12), crude fat (16.4 ± 0.04) and dry matter (91.1 ± 0.06), was highest in the freshly purchased soybean flour. The moisture content of the stored flour was (9.1 0. ± 06), while carbohydrate (35.2%), ash (3.9 ± 0.04) and crude fibre (4.2 ± 0.02) were also higher. Resistance to antibiotics was highest to cloxacillin (100%), amoxicillin (75%) and augmentin (75%). 

Conclusion: The result of this work showed that long term storage is detrimental to the soybean flour and the presences of antibiotic resistant bacteria have serious public health implications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mycotoxin Contamination and Induced Biochemical Changes Associated with Selected Medicinal Plants

Punam K. Singh

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/33596

Mycotoxin contamination and induced biochemical changes in medicinal plants namely Azadirachta indica, Emblica officinalis, Plantago ovata and Vitex negundo collected from different localities of Uttarakhand (India) were investigated. Mycotoxin producing fungi like A.flavus, A.ochraceus, F.verticillioides and Penicillium citrinum were recorded. In comparison to other mycotoxigenic fungi, percentage toxigenicity was higher in Aspergillus flavus. In case of E. officinalis, 32.69% isolates of A.flavus were toxigenic and produced aflatoxins up to 21 µg/ml in the liquid media followed by A. indica where 22.2% isolates produced aflatoxin in the range of 0.4-13.8 µg/ml. In case of V. negundo and P. ovata 14.28% and 8% isolates of A. flavus elaborated aflatoxin B1,B2 and aflatoxin B1 respectively at low concentration. Mycotoxin contamination in stored samples of E. officinalis and V. negundo  showed aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin B1,B2 as natural contaminant. Twenty eight percent (28%) samples of E. officinalis exhibited higher concentration of aflatoxins up to 0.98 µg/g whereas in case of V. negundo 6% samples were found naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1. Alkaloid content of medicinal plant produce understudy was estimated in healthy as well as A.flavus infested samples.There was an indication of inhibition in the total alkaloid content due to the toxigenic strain of A. flavus. Statistical analysis of the results show a decline in the level of total alkaloid content due to fungal contamination significant at 5% level of significance.