Open Access Original Research Article

Viability of Fungal Spores Isolated from Sorghum Grains Sampled from the Field, Market and Different Storage Facilities in the Six Agro-ecological Zones of Nigeria

M. H. Garba, H. A. Makun, A. A. Jigam, L. M. Hadiza, B. N. Patrick, A. Y. Kabiru

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/33387

Nutritional quality, organoleptic attributes and food safety are usually compromised by the presence of Microscopic fungi or fungal spores in food and feeds that humans and animals solely rely on. It is therefore intended in this study to re appraise the viability of fungal spores in sorghum from different ecosystems in Nigeria with a view to establish the level of infection/contamination and also to establish a basis for predicting the possible mycotoxins that may likely be present in sorghum obtained from the study areas. Sorghum sample was collected from six Agro ecological zones of Nigeria. Each zone was transversely delineated into districts and five villages (at least 20 Km from each other) called locations were selected in each district. In each district, Sorghum grains in stores, bunches in the field and sorghum grains in the market were sampled from five locations, each approximately 20 km from the previous sampling location. The mycological analytical procedures were performed under aseptic condition. One gram of milled sample was weighed into a test tube and diluted in 9 ml of sterile Ringer’s solution, vortexed and serially diluted further to 10-6. One ml from each test tube was cultured by pour plate technique on Ohio Agricultural Station agar (OAESA) and potato dextrose agar (PDA) and incubated for 4-7 days at 25°C. Plates were counted for fungal colonies using a colony counter and the number of fungal colonies per gram of sample was calculated and expressed in colony forming units per gram of sample. The fungi species were isolated and subsequently identified using MEA/CYA media for Aspergillus and Penicillium species and PDA for the fusarium species. It was observed that: the count range in all the samples from all the ecological zones is far above the standard Mycological poor quality standard of 7 x 104. The highest value of 1.3x 108 and the lowest value of 6.7x 106 all which outrageously exceed the bad quality range were obtained. This is a clear indication that people subsisting on sorghum and sorghum based products are at a high risk of exposure to both Mycoses and Mycotoxicosis in all the Agro ecological zone of the country and the traditional storage system seems infective in curtailing fungal proliferation in the studied area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Serum Expression Levels of miR-141 and miR-215 for Differentiation between Liver Cirrhosis, Chronic Hepatitis C and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients

Sahar A. M. Ali, Ziab Z. Alahmady, Hussain A. Yamany, Amr M. Abul-Fotouh

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/34134

Objectives: To evaluate the ability of estimation of serum expression levels of micro RNA (miR-141 and miR-215 to differentiate between liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients.

Patients and Methods: The study included 25 liver cirrhosis patients, 25 CHC patients, 25 HCC patients and 15 volunteers (Control group). All patients underwent clinical examination, preliminary investigations and radiological workup. Fasting blood samples were withdrawn from all patients and controls for estimation of serum levels of α-fetoprotein (AFP), quantitative PCR estimation of HCV RNA titers and real-time PCR quantitation of serum expression levels of miR-215 and miR-215 -141.

Results: Serum AFP levels were significantly higher in HCC patients than cirrhosis and CHC patients. Estimated serum expression levels of miR-215 were significantly higher in CHC and HCC patients compared to both controls and cirrhosis, while serum expression levels of miR-141 were significantly lower in HCC patients compared to controls and cirrhosis patients and in CHC patients than controls. Estimated HCV viral load in CHC patients showed positive significant correlation with serum expression level of miR-215, while showed non-significant correlation with miR-141. Estimated serum levels of miR-215 and miR-141 could differentiate hepatic patients and controls with AUC= 0.872 and 0.250, respectively. Whereas, estimated serum levels of miR-215 could differentiate between cirrhosis and CHC patients with AUC= 0.899. Estimated serum levels of miR-215 and miR-141 also could be used to identify HCC patients out of hepatic disease patients with AUC of 0.818 and 0.351, respectively.

Conclusion: Serum expression levels of miR-215 and miR-141 could be used to identify hepatic disease patients with high positive predictive value (PPV) especially miR-215. miR-215 can differentiate between cirrhosis and CHC patients and correlated with HCV load. Serum levels of both miRs could assure diagnosis of HCC with high PPV.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiology Hazard in Inputs (Traditional Cassava Inocula, Water and Oil Palm) Used in Attieke Process in South of Côte d’Ivoire

Alfred K. Kouamé, Marie D. Toka, Jean-Paul K. M. Bouatenin, Theodore N. Djéni, Charles Y. Tra Bi, Marcellin K. Dje

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/34344

Production of attieke in Cote d'Ivoire requires the use of inputs such as the cassava traditional inocula, palm oil and water. These three inputs are involved in the entire production process. Contamination of these ingredients will result in a finished product of uncertain health quality. For the implementation of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical control Point) in the production of attieke in Cote d'Ivoire, it is therefore necessary to identify the microbiological hazards in these ingredients (cassava traditional inocula, palm oil and the water used for the production of attieke). The imputs contained pathogenic microorganisms. Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Citrobacter freundi, Enterobacter amnigenus, Citrobacter youngae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter agglomerans and Klebsiella oxytoca were the bacteria isolated, and Rhizopus spp., Mucor spp., Thamnidium spp., Fusarium spp., Moniliella spp. were the fungi isolated.The occurrence of some bacteria and fungi illustrate that cassava traditional inocula, water and palm oil used in attieke proccess collected in Côte d’Ivoire may act as a reservoir of potential pathogenic micro-organisms for human.The finished product which is the attieke must undergo a particular treatment in order to ensure its microbiological quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

In silico RFLP Analysis of 16S rRNA Genes: A Helpful Application for Distinguishing Bifidobacteria from Human and Animal Source

Monica Modesto, Samanta Michelini, Giorgia Perpetuini, Rosanna Tofalo, Thomas Andlid, Paola Mattarelli

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/33869

Bifidobacterial species are widespread in gastrointestinal tracts of mammalian and other animals; they can be found in extra body environment only after a fecal contamination or human intentional addition (as the case of probiotics). Interestingly their occurrence is strictly linked to their hosts with a clear demarcation between animal and human species. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) on the 16S rRNA gene, using Alul, and TaqI restriction enzymes, have been utilized to distinguish the animal or human source of 64 strains belonging to 13 Bifidobacterium species (Delcenserie et al. [15]). Our aim was to test this method updating an in silico restriction analysis on the available 16S rRNA gene sequences of all 55 currently described taxa of Bifidobacterium genus. Our results confirmed the reliability of this method, optimized with the use of three restriction enzymes: Alul, TaqI and MaeIII, as a fast and simple strategy to determine the origin (human or animal) of bifidobacteria. Interestingly, the bifidobacterial species recently isolated from non-human primates cluster in the group of animal source except the bifidobacterial species isolated from higher non-human primates closest to humans such as apes (chimpanzee, orangutan and gorilla) that clusters with human group. Moreover, B. minimum, B. subtile and B. mongoliense isolated only from extrabody environment of which the source is unknown clustered with animal species. The in silico RFLP-PCR confirmed its powerful ability to attribute the primary source of occurrence (human or animal) for bifidobacterial species to the human or animal habitat.

Open Access Original Research Article

Alkylsulphatase Activity of Fungi Isolated from Rivers Contaminated with Surfactants in Akure, Nigeria

A. Yusuf

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/26073

Aims: To isolate, characterize and identify surfactant degrading fungi from selected rivers in Akure, Nigeria and also to compare and quantify the biodegrading potentials of each of the fungal isolates.

Place and Duration of Study: Akure metropolis, Ondo state, Nigeria, between March and September, 2014.

Methodology: Surfactant degrading fungi were isolated from the water samples by supplementing culture media with test surfactant. The fungi isolated were later subjected to the alkylsulphatase enzyme assay to quantify their various enzyme production/activity.

Results: The total fungi count of the water samples was within the range of 5.00±1.15x102 sfu/ml to 11.00 ± 1.73 x102 sfu/ml. Surfactant degrading fungi count was within the range of 6.0 ± 0.11 x101 sfu/ml to 1.20 ± 0.05 x 102 sfu/ml. Penicillium italicum and Trichoderma viridae were able to produce more of the alkylsulphatase enzyme amongst the isolated surfactant degrading fungi.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that the set of fungi isolated from the selected aquatic environments are capable of carrying out biodegradation of surfactants and that they are abundant in the selected environments. Penicillium italicum and Trichoderma viridae have higher biodegrading potentials and they can be exploited in the bioremediation of water bodies polluted with surfactants.