Open Access Original Research Article

Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Dermatophytes by Agar Based Disk Diffusion Assay in Tertiary Care Hospital, Nepal

Sundar Khadka, Jeevan Bahadur Sherchand, Bharat Mani Pokhrel, Subhash Dhital, Rosham Manjhi, Basistha Rijal

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/31827

Background: Dermatophytes are fungi, which cause most of superficial fungal infections. Several antifungal agents are commercially available to treat these dermatophytes.

Methods: We adopted a newly developed agar based disk diffusion assay to test susceptibility of 72 clinically isolated dermatophytes belonging to 5 species Trichophyton interdigitale (44), Trichophtyon rubrum (13), Trichophyton tonsurans (6), Microsporum canis (6), and Epidermatophyton floccosum (3). The process involved the application of four commercially available anti-fungal disks namely Ketoconazole (15 µg), Miconazole (10 µg), Fluconazole (25 µg) and Clotrimazole (10 µg) for antifungal susceptibility testing.

Results: The study shows miconazole is the most effective antifungal drugs against dermatophytes followed by ketoconazole and clotrimozazole.

Conclusions: The disk diffusion assay method for antifungal susceptibility testing of dermatophytes species in this in vitro study may give insights into the application in therapeutic strategy against dermatophytic infections. Disk diffusion method is a simple and cost-effective for susceptibility testing of dermatophytes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Laboratory – Based Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon Polluted Mangrove Swamp Soil in the Niger Delta Using Poultry Wastes

Charles Chibueze Ezekoye, Ebiokpo Rebecca Amakoromo, Abiye Anthony Ibiene

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/15153

Aim: To assess the sustainable use of poultry wastes in compost bioremediation and the effects of sterile and non – sterile poultry wastes on the bacterial degradation of petroleum in mangrove soil.

Methodology: A laboratory – based study was carried out using sterile and non – sterile poultry wastes.

Place and Duration: Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Choba Port Harcourt, Nigeria, between August, 2012 and June, 2013.

Results: In a 42 day study, the sterile poultry wastes treated option had an increase in total logarithmic cultural heterotrophic bacterial count from 5.18 to 7.66 while the non-sterile poultry wastes increased from 5.26 to 7.68. The untreated set up had its total logarithmic culturable heterotrophic bacterial count increased from 5.15 to 6.65. The total logarithmic culturable hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria in SPW and NSPW treated options increased from 3.7 to 7.11, and 3.85 to 7.20, respectively, at which time the corresponding value obtained for untreated increased from 3.60 to 5.59. Statistical analyses showed significant difference at p<0.05 level for three conditions. Hydrocarbon utilizers isolated from poultry wastes were Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., Escherichia spp., and Salmonella spp. At day 42, the percentage loss of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was 67.66±0.01%, 62.93±0.06% and 29.43±0.01% in SPW, NSPW and untreated, respectively.

Conclusion: These results showed that application of poultry wastes especially non – sterile poultry wastes can effectively enhance bioremediation of hydrocarbon impacted mangrove soil. This could be attributed to the presence of indigenous hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria in non sterile poultry wastes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Types of Microorganisms Isolated from Children with Diarrhoea in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

Q. C. Okebugwu, T. T. Adebolu, B. A. Ojo

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/30849

Diarrhoea continues to be the scourge of children across the world. Despite efforts by the World Health Organisation and other agencies, much still remains to be done in combating diarrhoeal diseases in the developing world, including Nigeria. This study was conducted to determine the types of microorganisms responsible for diarrhoea in children in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. A total of 125 children with symptoms of diarrhoea that visited the Mother and Child Hospital, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria was recruited for the investigation. Stool samples were obtained from these children and assayed using standard microbiological methods to isolate and identify the types of microorganisms present. The investigation showed the types and the percentages of the different microorganisms isolated from the examined stools as follows:Escherichia coli (89.6%), Enterobacter aerogenes (59.2%), Klebsiella pnuemoniae (47.2%), Shigella flexneri (37.6%), Salmonella typhimurium (32.8%), Vibrio cholerae (28.8%), Salmonella typhi (28.0%), Shigella sonnei (25.6%), rotavirus (24.8%), and Vibrio paraheamolyticus (21.6%). The significance of this result is discussed.

Open Access Review Article

Why is Staphylococcus aureus Such a Successful Pathogen?

Mfonido A. Ukpanah, Peter U. Upla

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/31761

Staphylococcus aureus is a fast evolving and a well-adapted opportunistic pathogen that causes a variety of infections such as boils, abscesses, pneumonia, toxic shock syndrome, endocarditis, bacteraemia and food poisoning in humans. The colonisation of various body sites by S. aureus demonstrates the ability of this pathogen to disseminate at a fast pace in the hospital setting and in the community. The organism is endowed with a profusion of virulence factors that play a significant role in pathogenesis and disease severity.  S. aureus infections are generally difficult to treat due to the evolution of strains with resistance to methicillin (methicillin-resistant S. aureus-MRSA) and vancomycin (vancomycin intermediate-resistant S. aureus [VISA] and vancomycin-resistant S. [VRSA]). The success of S. aureus as a human pathogen, therefore, relies largely on its capacity to produce an array of virulence factors that can evade or subvert the host immune responses and its resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. This review will focus largely on virulence determinants, immune evasion mechanisms and antibiotic resistance mechanism of S. aureusthat makes it such a successful pathogen.

Open Access Review Article

Pediatric Invasive Gastrointestinal Fungal Infections: Causative Agents and Diagnostic Modalities

Mortada H. F. El-Shabrawi, Lamiaa A. Madkour, Naglaa Kamal, Kerstin Voigt

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/32231

Invasive gastrointestinal fungal infections are posing a serious threat to the ever-expanding population of immunocompromised children, as well as some healthy children at risk. In this narrative review, we collate and explore the etiologies and diagnostic modalities of these overlooked infections.  Currently, the conventional diagnostic approaches of histopathologic examination and culture are still considered the gold standard for diagnosis. However, these approaches may be time-consuming and have low sensitivities, which emphasizes the need for new diagnostic modalities in such life-threatening infections. Meanwhile, biomarkers that detect fungal antigens e.g. galactomannan and beta-D-glucan have been established and implemented in various clinical settings. On the other hand, novel molecular techniques have been developed and are currently subjected to further evaluation and validation. Other promising approaches such as the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) have proved reliable in clinical trials but still require standardization before widespread clinical application. The incorporation of standardized novel diagnostic tools would provide the necessary guidance to therapeutic approaches. Prompt treatment of IFD necessitates surgical intervention together with systemic anti-fungal agents. The most widely used agents include amphotericin B, voriconazole, and caspofungin. A high index of suspicion coupled with prompt diagnosis and judicious management can tremendously improve the survival of the vulnerable pediatric population.