Aims: To investigate and compare the antibacterial effect of Curcuma longa with Zingiber officinale rhizome ethanolic extracts against five bacterial species which include three gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis) and two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcusaureus andStreptococcus pyogenes).
Study Design: Activity directed antibacterial effect of C. longa and Z. officinale using in vitro methods.
Place and Duration of Study: Medicinal Plants Section, Bioresources Development Centre, Ogbomoso, Nigeria between March and September, 2016.
Methodology: The ethanolic extract was prepared by separately weighing 20, 40 and 60 g of powdered C. longa and Z. officinale into 100 mL of absolute ethanol. The antibiotic sensitivity test was carried out using a sensitivity disc impregnated with various antibiotics including Augmentin (AUG), Ampicillin (AMP), Ciprofloxacin (CIP), Ceptriaxome (CEP) and Ofloxacin (OFL).
Results: 40 and 60 g of C. longa and Z. officinale extracts significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited all the isolates (more effect was on S. pyogenes, S. aureus, E. coli, P. mirabilis followed by K. pneumoniae) when compared with 20 g. Also, 40 g of Z. officinale extract significantly (P< 0.05) inhibited the growth of S. pyogenes when compared with C. longa while 60 g of C. longa significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the growth of P. mirabilis andK. pneumonia when compared with Z.officinale. The minimum inhibitory concentration of both extracts that inhibited E. coli and P. mirabilis was 1.3 g. CIP followed by CEP and OFL were active on all the bacteria used for this study. AUG was slightly active only on K. pneumonia while AMP was not active on any of the test organisms.
Conclusion: The result of this study showed that all the gram-positive bacteria used in this study were more sensitive to both C. longa and Z. officinale rhizomes ethanolic extracts as compared to the gram-negative bacteria.
Aim: Storage stability of carotenoid pigment (extracellular and intracellular) extracted from Rhodotorula minuta grown in Malt Yeast Extract Broth (MYEB), coconut water and rice was studied for a period of 15 days at ambient temperature (29°C) and refrigeration temperature i.e. 4°C with respect to absorbance at 520 nm at 5 days interval.
Methods and Results: Rhodotorula minuta RAI3 obtained from air of dairy environment was used in shelf life study of the carotenoid pigment. The yeast culture was maintained on Malt Yeast Extract Agar (MYEA) slant and working culture in Malt Yeast Extract Broth (MYEB) with incubation at 30°C for 3-5 days. Color of pigment was stable both at ambient temperature (29°C) and refrigeration temperature (4°C) for 15 days of the study with A520 of 0.420, 0.140, 0.10 and 0.090 and 0.412, 0.320, 0.270 and 0.189 extracellular in MYEB, coconut water, and rice.
Conclusion: Storage stability for 15 days both at the ambient temperature (29°C) and the refrigeration temperature (4°C) was noticed during storage of the extra and intracellular pigment of Rhodotorula minutaRAI3.
Signiﬁcance and Impact of the Study: The present study aided in understanding storage stability of extra and intracellular pigments extracted from Rhodotorula minuta both at the ambient temperature (29°C) and the refrigeration temperature (4°C) for 15 days.
Background: Carbapenem resistant enterobacteriaceae (CRE) constitute major public health threat. They account for significant morbidity and mortality and also present patients with difficult to treat infection. This study examines the integron carriage rate and gene content among CRE.
Methods: Samples were collected from patients and enterobacteriaceae identified in accordance with standard practice. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed in line with CLSI guidelines, and referenced criteria were used to screen for multidrug resistant enterobacteriaceae (MDRE) and carbapenem non susceptible isolates (CNSI). Further susceptibility test of the CNSI to carbapenems and third generation cephalosporin by agar dilution method as per CLSI guide lines was performed to screen for CRE, and Int1and Int2 specific primers were used to amplify class 1 and 2 integron respectively. IntCS primer was used to amplify integrons variable region and a blast search on the amplicons’ sequenced data was performed on NCBI site to identify the gene content. Results: Of the 512 MDRE, 62.1% were CNSI and 56.0% of the CNSI were CRE. While K.pneumoniae and E. coli were the predominant isolates, 87.1% and 9.0% of the CRE isolates were positive for integron class 1 and 2 respectively. The amplified variable region did not reveal the presence of carbapenemase coding gene.
Conclusion: Although the variable region did not show presence of carbapenemase coding gene, high class 1 integron carriage rate underscore high potentials for dissemination of resistance determinants among isolates, thus the need to step up infection control measures in order to reduce spread of these pathogens.
Background: The early detection of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers in clinical microbiology is now of great importance to optimize appropriate therapeutic schemes and to improve the patient outcome. The ESBL NDP (Nordmann/Dortet/Poirel) test has been recently developed for the early detection of ESBL producing organisms. It is based on the biochemical detection of the hydrolysis of the β-lactam ring of cefotaxime (a broad spectrum cephalosporin).
Aims: This study was done to evaluate the performance of NDP test in detection of ESBL producing organism directly from urine samples and blood cultures.
Place and Duration of Study: This is a Seven-months Cross sectional study conducted in Internal Medicine and Medical Microbiology & Immunology departments, Benha University, Egypt.
Methodology: A total of one hundred Gram negative bacterial isolates (60 urine isolates and 40 blood isolates) were tested for ESBL production by ESBL NDP test. All isolates were screened phenotypically for ESBL production with disc diffusion method then confirmed using the double disc synergy test (DDST).Characterization of ESBL encoding genes were done by multiplex PCR.
Results: In total, 39% were confirmed as ESBL positive using the DDST and PCR. The genetic analysis revealed that CTX-M was the most prevalent gene type (71.8%) followed by SHV genes (35.9%) then TEM genes (20.5%).For the detection of ESBL producers directly from urine samples, NDP test had a sensitivity of 90.5%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 95%. NDP test had an excellent performance when performed directly on blood culture, it had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value, all of 100 %.
Conclusion: The NDP test is a rapid, sensitive, and specific test that could be introduced in clinical practice.
Campylobacter are Gram negative bacteria, ubiquitous, found in the gastrointestinal tract of warm blooded animals, including poultry and also in their nature. The most dominant species is Campylobacter jejuni, followed by Campylobacter coli. For a long time, these bacteria have been known as a pathogen of foodborne infections in the worldwide. The most cases of campylobacteriosis, which have been observed in many countries, are sporadic with a seasonal peak during the summer. Usually, the disease is benign and self-limited, manifested by fever, abdominal pain and diarrhea. Often accompanied by blood in the stools, which requires antimicrobial therapy for children, elderly and immunocompromised, but rarely for adults.
This review aims to give an overview of the historical approaches, properties, sources and different ways of transmissions of Campylobacter spp. also clarifying its pathogenesis, its treatment and the prevention against these bacteria.