Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular and Serological Study of Human Parvovirus B19 among Children with Thalassemia in Mansoura University Children Hospital, Egypt

Nashwa M. Al- Kasaby, Maysaa Elsayed Zaki, Mona Abd El- Latif

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/31263

Background: Human parvovirus B19 (HPV-B19) is a member of the Parvoviridae family. Children with thalassemia can acquire HPV-B19 through blood transfusions and through contact with other children with infection.

The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of HPV-B19 infection in children with beta-thalassemia major in Mansoura University Children Hospital, Egypt.

Methods: This study is a cross-sectional case control study that included 63 Egyptian children with beta thalassemia major attending the hospital for blood transfusion and regular blood counts and 60 healthy children as control group.

Blood samples were obtained for determination of specific antibodies IgG and IgM for HPV-B19 by enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) and for detection of HPV-B19 DNA by nested PCR.

Results:  HPV-B19 IgM was positive in 21 beta-thalassemia patient (33.3%), IgG was positive in 27 patient (42.8%) and PCR was positive in 12 patients (19.04%). Comparing these results with the finding in healthy children by Chi-square test, there was statistically significant difference (P <0.001).

Hematological parameters between beta-thalassemia children with recent HPV-B19 infection and control group, showed statistically significant decrease in total  leukocytes counts (4.49±1.3) with reduced neutrophils counts (2.5± 0.73) and increase in lymphocytes (4.1±1.2), P value 0.018, ,0.004 and 0.001, respectively. In our study, There was no significant association between blood transfusion and HPV-B19 infection.

Conclusion: HPV-B19 infection is detected in high rates among children with beta thalassemia major (recent infection 19% and prior infection, 42.8%). Direct detection of HPV-B19 DNA by PCR in serum needs to be coupled with serological testing for a more reliable diagnosis of HPV-B19 infections in those children.

HPV-B19 infection in our study, has significant effects on hematological parameters in children with thalassemia with recent infection.

In our study, There was no statistically significant association between number of blood transfusion units and HPV-B19 infection. However the source of HPV-B19 in these patients may be blood transfusion. Whether it is needed for screening of blood units for HPV-B19 or not should be evaluated in larger population studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Fermentation Conditions of Glycerol to 1,3-propanediol by an Alkali-resistant Klebsiella pneumonia ZH-1 Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

Zhi-Fang Zhao, Jian- Guo Xu, Qing- Ping Hu

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/31280

1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) is an important chemical material and can be used as monomer to produce polyesters, polyethers and polyurethanes. Its biosynthetic method arouses our more and more interests. In this study, 1,3-PD was produced from crude glycerol through the fermentation of a Klebsieblla sp. ZH-1 strain isolated from a anaerobic sludge collected in Fenhe river. The fermentation condition of 1,3-propanediol from strain ZH-1 was optimized in 3 aspects of temperature, pH and inoculum by one factor at a time and response surface methodology. Results showed that the optimal fermentation parameters for temperature, pH and inoculum were determined as 36°C, 7.8 and 11%, respectively. Under these conditions, the practical yield of 1,3-PD was 19.93 g-L-1 and a molar yield (mol1,3-PD-molGlycerol-1) of 1,3-propanediol to glycerol of 0.52. Compared with other strains of producing 1,3-PD by fermentation, the strain K. pneumoniae ZH-1 has a higher molar conversion rate. Meanwhile, we believe the strain ZH-1 is an alkaline resistant strain.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatotoxicity and Anaemia Co-morbidity in Treated HIV Patients in Fundong Subdivision in the Northwest Region of Cameroon

Lem Edith Abongwa, Anthony Kebira Nyamache, Nantia Akono, Stanley Sunjo, Vera Nange, Hebert Balan, Fokunang Charles, Paul Okemo

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/31011

Aims: Hepatotoxicity and anaemia are relevant adverse effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and can cause interruption of therapy and death. However, there is dearth of information on hepatotoxicity and anaemia co-morbidity especially in rural areas. The aim of the study was to identify the prevalence of Hepatotoxicity and Anaemia co-morbidity among HIV patients treated with either Zidovudine + Lamivudine + Efavirenz or Zidovudine + Lamivudine + Nevirapine or Tenofovir + lamivudine + Efavirenz in Fundong.

Study Design: In total, 150 drug naïve patients who have been followed up for 18 months with age between 15 and 74 years were recruited into the study. Baseline and 18 months levels of CD4 counts, alanine transaminase (ALT), and aspartate transaminase (AST) and Haemoglobin concentration (Hb) were determined.

Place and Duration of Study: Samples were collected from patients visiting the day hospital in Fundong District Hospital between January-March 2015.

Methodology: HIV was diagnosed using Alere determine HIV rapid test kit and Bioline or Oral Quick test kit for the confirmatory test. CD4 counts were determined using the Alere Pima™ CD4 cartridge machine. Hb, ALT and AST counts were determined by colometric enzymatic reaction using the urit 3300 machine and classified based on age and sex.

Results: The majority of patients were female 115(76.7%) and belonged to the <30 years age range 48(32%). The prevalence of anaemia decreased from 86(57.3%) to 69(45.6%) at the end of the study period. In all, 46(30.7%) patients had hepatotoxicity and anaemia co-morbidity which was higher in the age group <30 years 30(41.7%) and in female 37(32.2%). A total of 1(0.7%) and 10(6.7%) patients developed severe hepatotoxicity using ALT and AST respectively. The prevalence of hepatotoxicity was higher in male (31.4% and 62.9%) and in the age group 30-39years (29.5% and 68.2%) for ALT and AST, respectively. The prevalence of anaemia and elevated AST and ALT were higher in persons with CD4 <200cells/μl. There was a significant correlation (P<0.001) between CD4 and Hb (r=0.193), CD4 and ALT(r=-0.149) and CD4 and AST(r=-0.193).

Conclusion: Hepatotoxicity especially Grades 1-2 and not anaemia is a significant adverse effect of HAART upon time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological Quality of a Locally Brewed Alcoholic Beverage (PITO) Sold in Prampram within the Greater Accra Region, Ghana

Andrew A. Minamor, Alberta L. Mensah, Emmanuel Nii Laryea, Emmanuel Afutu, Patience B. - Tetteh Quarcoo

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/31623

Aims: This study evaluated the microbiological quality of a locally brewed alcoholic beverage (pito). Therefore, bacteria and fungi present in the pito samples were examined.

Study Design: This was a cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Accra Technical University, spanning from March to mid-April 2016.

Methodology: Samples of the drink were collected every week for six weeks, from three different popular brewing sites at Lower Prampram in the Ningo-Prampram District of Accra, Ghana. The samples were processed and examined for bacteria and fungi using the Standard Plate Count (SPC) technique.

Results: A total of six different bacteria and a fungus were isolated. The bacteria were Escherichia coliKlebsiella pneumoniaeShigella spp, EnterobacteaerogenesStaphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeroginosa, whiles the fungus was Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Total viable counts as well as individual isolates counts in all the pito samples were found to be less than 104 CFU/ml. 

Conclusion: It is noteworthy that, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the only fungus isolated is known to be associated with fermentation and the microbes isolated from the pito samples were found to be within the permissible limits. However, these potentially pathogenic microbes, if found in unacceptable limits, from the fermenting samples could merit public health attention. Therefore, periodic screening of pito and their brewers, coupled with education on the maintenance of recommended guidelines concerning food and drink production is encouraged.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of Endophytic Bacillus safensis Isolated from Ophioglossum reticulatum L.

Ananya Mukherjee, Rituparna Das, Arundhati Pal, A. K. Paul

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/31923

Aims: This study is aimed to explore the potential of endophytic bacterial population of Ophioglossum reticulatum L., a pharmacologically important perennial fern, for production of antimicrobial compounds.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, India, between March 2016 and August 2016.

Methodology: Phenotypically distinct bacterial endophytes were isolated from surface sterilized segments of O. reticulatum L. and screened for the production of antimicrobial metabolites following cross-streak and agar-cup assay methods. The most potent antibacterial isolate was characterized in terms of morphological, physio-biochemical features, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The antibacterial antibiotic produced in tryptic soy broth was isolated from the fermented medium in ethyl acetate and partially purified by preparative TLC. The nature and antimicrobial spectrum of the antibiotic was determined following standard biochemical and microbiological methods.

Results: The potent endophytic bacterial isolate OPL 19 was identified as Bacillus safensis (GenBank accession number KY029081) following a polyphasic approach. The antibacterial compound produced by Bacillus OPL 19 was found to be relatively thermostable, non-polar, and lipoidal in nature showing distinct absorption peaks at 220 and 235 nm. In addition it showed broad spectrum of activity inhibiting wide variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria including Acinetobacter baumanniiBacillus subtilisCellulosimicrobium cellulansEscherichia coliPseudomonas aeruginosaStaphylococcus aureus etc.

Conclusion: This study not only indicated the endomicrobiota as a potential resource for novel antimicrobials but also highlighted the fact that the therapeutic properties of O. reticulatum L. could be correlated with its endophytic association.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Candida Species in Stool of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Alexandria, Egypt

Shwikar Abdel Salam Ahmed, Marwa Ahmed Meheissen, Hanan Galal Azouz, Mona Hamdy Ashry, Yara Safwat Roshdy, Hala Abdelaty Gad, Ahmed Elsayed Ibrahim

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/32117

Background and Aims: The pathogenesis of Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is still controversial. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence and to identify the species and the antimicrobial sensitivity of Candida present in stool of autistic children.

Subjects and Methods: A total of 50 children with ASD, 36 siblings controls (brother or sister) and 50 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Stool samples were subjected to examination and culture on Sabouraud dextrose (SDA) and Brilliance Candida selective agars (BCA) (Oxoid, UK) followed by complete identification and antifungal susceptibility disc diffusion testing. DNA extraction was performed for all stool samples and then subjected to multiplex PCR for identification of Candida species.

Results: Out of the 50 ASD stool samples, 23 (46%) were culture positive and 33 (66%) were PCR positive. Of which, 51 different Candida species were isolated. C. glabrata (43.1%) was the most commonly isolated, followed by C. parapsilosis (19.6%), C. tropicalis (17.7%), then C. albicans (9.8%), and C. krusei (9.8%). All C. albicans isolates were sensitive to nystatin, fluconazole and voriconazole. When controls (siblings and healthy) were compared with ASD patients, the rate of Candida isolation was found significantly lower in controls (p value = .019 & p value = .046 respectively). No significant difference was found between Candida positive and negative ASD groups regarding the severity of autism and GIT manifestations.

Conclusion: The present work found that the colonization with Candida spp. did not affect the severity of symptoms in ASD children. However, Future studies should verify whether Candida elimination therapy is useful to manage ASDs symptoms.