Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Hepatitis E Virus in Minia Governorate, Upper Egypt

Mona Abdel-Monem Esmail, Sahr Mohammed Abo EL Euoon, Mohammed Sayed Mohammed, Shimaa Abd Elbadie Ali Hasanin

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/31075

Aim: Hepatitis E is a viral liver disease caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV), which is endemic in many tropical countries. We aimed to study the incidence of HEV infection at Minia governorate through Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Polymerase Chain reaction (PCR) tests.

Methodology: The study found that among 129 cases of acute hepatitis, laboratory methods for diagnosis of  Hepatitis viruses(A , B and c) were done  by using ELISA for detection HBs Ag, HCV antibodies and HAV antibodies and all positive cases of Hepatitis  A, B and C were excluded. All Negative cases were screened for HEV Using ELIZA and PCR

Results: Eight cases were positive by PCR and Five cases positive by ELIZA.

Conclusion: The incidence of HEV was low and PCR method was accurate than ELIZA in diagnosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Water Activity on the Radial Growth of Aspergillus niger on Solid Medium

Andrew Amegbedzi Minamor, Benedicta Aborhey

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/21781

The effects of water activity (aw) on the radial growth of Aspergillus niger on Malt Extract Agar was investigated using sodium chloride and glycerol mixtures. Varied concentrations of each solute was used to modify the water availability of the medium. The Petri plates were incubated at 31 ± 2°C representative of the Ghanaian ambient temperature. The inhibitory effects showed by two solutes on the growth of the A. niger was qualitatively similar but showed quantitative differences. The growth rate was erratic with no clear cut generalized response. On the whole, growth was better on glycerol-modified medium compared with the growth on the sodium chloride modified medium. Growth was optimal at the range of 0.904-0.947aw on the glycerol-modified medium and 0.800-0.821aw on the sodium chloride medium. Growth was severely retarded at 0.768aw when the water availability was adjusted with seventy-five grams (75 g) sodium chloride. Glycerol used to modify water availability of a medium may serve as carbon and energy sources to promote growth of fungi. On the other hand, high concentration of sodium chloride as solute to control water activity of a medium may be toxic to the organism hence the differences in the growth pattern observed. Microorganisms react not only to water activity but also the solute adjusting the water availability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological Investigation of E. coli in Urinary Tract Infection in South Port Said City

Ahmed M. Abdelaty, Mahmoud M. Zaki, Amro S. Hanora, Magdy Bahgat

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/30053

UTI is characterized by the evidence of uropathogens and pyuria and is accompanied by various clinical manifestations depending on the area of involvement.

Aim: The aim of this study was to isolate the bacterial infection to urinary tract infection in men and women at different ages and to investigate the susceptibility of bacteria implicated in urinary tract infection to different antimicrobial drugs (antibiotics). Also to determine minimum inhibitor concentration for resistant bacteria to antibiotic and molecular characterization of E. coli associated.

Materials and Methods: One hundred urine specimens were received from patients admitted during January till December 2015. E. coli isolates were confirmed by typical colonial morphology, and identified by differential tests as well as by the growth on characteristic agar, Susceptibility testing was carried out by disk diffusion method. Among the 100 isolates, 72 bacterial strain was isolated from the urine specimens of infected Patient admitted at Port-said area out-patient clinics, using agar medium and macCkonkey agar, This organism was characterized by biochemical tests and showed similarity with E. coli. The genomic level confirmation done with 16S rDNA primer by submitting the genomic sequence to Gene Bank under acc.No-GU046545 after comparing, showed 98% sequence similarity with E. coli. Antibiotic susceptibility test revealed that imipenem, Amikacin, Nitrofurantoin and gentamicin are the lowest resistant rate with percent of 79.2, 76.4, 75 and 61% respectively and ampicillin showed the highest resistant rate with 89%. Pattern on antibiotic susceptibility test showed high resistant rate to some antibiotic that made it difficult for pregnant patients, although its frequency was low. The most prevalent bacterial pathogen in Port-saed city was E. coli and the most sensitive antibiotic against it is imipenem.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Rigwash Oil Spill ‘Dispersants’ on the Biodegradation of Crude Oil in Nigeria

Prince C. Nnadozie, Lucky O. Odokuma

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/30857

Aim: To ascertain the impact of Rigwash oil spill ‘dispersant’ on the biodegradation of crude oil.

Study Design: The study employs experimental design and statistical analysis of data and interpretation.

Place and Duration of Study: The water sample for the study was collected from Okrika High Sea via Adedemebiri, Rivers State of Nigeria at a depth of 1 m. It was transported to the laboratory at 25 – 30°C within 2 hours. The ‘dispersant’ and the oil were obtained from an industrial chemical store at Trans-Amadi, Port Harcourt and from the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC), Port Harcourt, Rivers State of Nigeria respectively. Experimental analyses were done at the Departments of Microbiology, and Biochemistry, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, and at the Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi (FIIRO), Lagos State. The biodegradation setups were monitored at a weekly interval over 21-days period at room temperature (approximately 30°C) on a static shake-flask system.

Methodology: Standard techniques such as the spread plate method, titrimetric technique, atomic absorption spectrophotometry and Gas Chromatography (GC-FID) were adopted during the study. The preliminary range findings involves plating out in duplicates on nutrient agar an 0.1 ml aliquot of a mixture of 100 ml seawater and each of the different concentrations of ‘dispersants’ (0, 0.01,0.1,1.0, 2.0, 5.0,10, 20, 50, 100,1000) ml (v/v) respectively. The cultures were incubated at 35°C for 48 hours. Analysis of variance at confidence limit P ≤ 0.05 was adopted.

Results: The result of the study revealed that Rigwash oil spill ‘dispersant’ may have negative impact on the biodegradation of Bonny light crude oil over time. The effect may portend great danger to the health, safety and environment of aquatic floras and faunas of marine systems. The level of biodegradation achieved for the crude oil-dispersant mixture (K2) and crude oil alone (R2) were 1.01% and 1.10% respectively. Analysis of variance at confidence limit P ≤ 0.05 showed that there was no significant difference in the biodegradation of crude oil or its combination with Rigwash oil spill ‘dispersant’.

Conclusion: Rigwash oil spill ‘dispersant’ may have negative impact on the biodegradation of Bonny light crude oil. However, this may be injurious to the health, safety and environment of living organisms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potential for Biochar as an Alternate Carrier to Peat Moss for the Preparation of Rhizobia Bio Inoculum

Azza A. Ghazi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/30828

Carrier based preparations of Rizobium  inoculant, developed using two different rice biochar preparations  (biochar alone and biochar- vermiculite 50:50 ) were evaluated in comparison with peatmoss based carrier (peatmoss: vermiculite 50:50) for their suitability as a best alternate of peatmoss for commercial production of Rizobia. The three different carriers were evaluated over a period of 180 days for its moisture content, pH, survival of the microbial inoculant and respiration rate. At the end of storing period (180 days) different carrier materials were used to inoculate kidney bean seeds in a pot experiment conducted in sandy soil to ensure the viability of survived Rizobia in different carrier preparations. In addition, the ability of carrier materials to ameliorate the antimicrobial effect of seed diffusate was also assessed. Among the different carriers, bio char based carrier recorded a maximum population of log 9.98 cfu g–1 of carrier on 180 days after inoculation with a maximum moisture content of 20%. A slight decline in pH was recorded at the end of storing period.  It was also found that kidney bean seeds inoculated with bio char based inoculant gave the highest nodule dry weight, plant dry weight, plant height. In addition, biochar was found to ameliorate the antimicrobial effect of kidney bean seed diffusate.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Screening of Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils from Four Moroccan Medicinal Plants

Abdelhakim Bouyahya, Youssef Bakri, Abdeslam Et- Touys, Aya Khouchlaa, Amina El Yahyaoui El Idrissi, Jamal Abrini, Nadia Dakka

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/30073

Aims: Evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of essential oils extracted from Salvia officinalis, Mentha viridis, Eucalyptus globulus and Myrtus communis from Ouezzane province.

Study Design: In vitro evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of medicinal plants essential oils (EOs).

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biology (Faculty of Sciences), July, 2015 to September, 2016 (15 Months).

Methodology: Essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation method, while agar well diffusion, microdilution and spectrophotometry methods were used to evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant activities respectively.

Results: The yields of EOs are 0.9, 1.2, 2.5, and 2.1% for M. communis, E. globulus, M. viridis, and S. officinalis respectively. EOs showed significant antibacterial activities against test bacterial strains:Staphylococcus aureus CECT 976, Staphylococcus aureus CECT 994, Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4b CECT 4032, Proteus mirabilisStaphylococcus aureus MBLA, Escherichia coli K12, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis 6633. Salvia officinalis EO was more active than the rest EOs on the test bacteria and exhibited the highest zone of inhibition (23 mm) against B. subtilis bacterial, while P. aeruginosa was the most resistant bacterial strain. S. officinalis and M. communis EO showed minimum inhibitory concentration at MIC=0.5 % (v/v) against L. monocytogenes and P. mirabilis. The antioxidant results indicated that M. communis and S. officinalis posess the ability to scavenge DPPH radicals. Their IC50 Values of 0.24 and 0.46 mg/mL respectively, suggest their anatioxidant capacity compared to reference drugs IC50value (IC50=0.027 mg/mL for ascorbic acid and IC50=0.043 mg/mL for Trolox).

Conclusion: Our study showed that apart from the local uses of the plants extracts, the EOs of S. officinalis,M. viridisE. globulus and M. communis plants poses strong antibacterial and antioxidant properties and may be useful as food preservatives.