Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Cyanobacteria Filtrate, Compost Tea and Different Rates of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Growth, Fruit Yield and Quality of Cantaloupe Plants

D. K. Farrag, A. A. Mehesen, M. H. Kasem, O. A. Alaa El-Dein

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/29944

This work was carried out at Sakha Agricultural Research Station Farm during the summer seasons of 2013 and 2014 to evaluate the response of cantaloupe cultivars (Shahd El-Dokki) to spraying with cyanobacteria filtrate and compost tea either alone or mixed under different N levels (60, 120 and 240 kg N ha-1). A split–split plot design with four replicates was used. Results indicated that foliar application with cyanobacteria filtrate + compost tea attained a highly significant response for increased vegetative growth characters with the highest plant height (159.8 and 162.6 cm plant-1), number of leaves plant–1 (72.9 and 75.3), number of branches plant–1 (4.3 and 4.4), leaf area plant–1 (68.1 and 70.3 cm2), leaves fresh weight (437.9 and 448.5 g plant-1), leaves dry weight (43.4 and 45.1 g plant-1) compared to control (tap water) in both seasons, respectively. Furthermore, fruit yield and its components as well as leaf content of chlorophyll and chemical constituents gave a similar trend with application of N rate up to 240 kg N ha-1.  

Foliar application with cyanobacteria filtrate + compost tea with increasing N fertilization up to 240 kg N ha-1appeared to be the most efficient treatment for more vigorous growth, fruit yield and its components.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphology and Ecology of Freshwater-blooming Durinskia baltica (Dinophyceae: Peridiniales) in Xochimilco, Mexico

Beatriz Lira, Matthew W. Parrow, Rosaluz Tavera

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/30342

Framework and Aims: A dinoflagellate identified as Durinskia baltica has caused early spring blooms since 2007 in a eutrophic freshwater channel system influenced by agriculture and livestock in central Mexico. The goals of this study were to document the morphology of this freshwater strain of D. baltica, and describe its bloom formation in relationship with local environmental conditions.

Study Design, Place and Duration: The species blooming in Xochimilco was identified through light and electron microscopy, recording cellular structures that distinguish it from other Dinophyceae. Environmental and climatic variables were monitored during one-year collections of biological material to document the ecology of the species.

Methodology: Biweekly and monthly surveys (September 2010 to January 2011 and fortnightly from February to August 2011) were conducted (calibrated field sensors and laboratory analysis) and population density of flagellate cells and cysts were performed (Sedgwick-Rafter chamber). For data analysis, descriptive statistics, correlations between variables and a Categorical Principal Components Analysis were performed.

Results: Morphological study of D. baltica revealed the typical plate 1a, sulcal plates, endosymbiont nucleus and stigma. Pearson correlations confirmed a significant relationship between flagellate cells and environmental temperature (P = .02) and pH (P = .003). Cysts were correlated with annual rainfall (P = .001). Total variance explained by the two-dimensional CATPCA (> 76%) model showed a strong association between the maximum and minimum species densities, with ambient conditions and trophic status indicating that nutrients, pH and climatic factors were parameters responsible for bloom formation and cyst occurrence.

Conclusions: D. baltica is indeed a freshwater species and is able to live at relatively high temperature in shallow, eutrophic columns. A seasonal effect and hence an association with temperature suggests that water bodies in urban-influenced tropical latitudes may be well suited as environments for D. balticablooms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sero Prevalence of Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) Virus in Selected Regions in Sudan

H. A. Wegdan, M. E. Sahar, A. Ballal, K. S. Intisar, M. M. Shaza, O. A. Algezoli, H. A. Ihsan, A. M. Baraa, K. M. Taha, E. M. Nada, A. A. Manan, Y. H. Ali, Y. M. Nouri

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/27451

Equine infectious anaemia (EIA) is an acute to chronic lentivirus disease affecting members of equidae. In this study, the prevalence of EIA virus antibodies was investigated in 358 sera samples collected randomly from apparently healthy horses and donkeys during 2008-2013. Seven regions in Sudan were investigated, including Khartoum, Nyala, Atbra, Elfashir, Halfa, Madani and Kurdofan.

Results revealed that, the prevalence of EIA virus antibodies in the total samples examined using Indirect ELISA, was 5.58% (20/358*100); of which 3.17% (6/189*100) horse samples and 8.28% (14/169*100) donkey samples. Across the regions sampled; the highest prevalence (11.1%) was detected in donkeys from Halfa. However, all of the sampled donkeys and horses from Atbara were sero-negative to EIA virus.

Conclusion: Equine Infectious Anemia Virus was detected in horses and donkeys in selected regions in Sudan.

High sero-prevalence of the disease in horse from Elfashir and donkeys from Nyala was recorded. The highest prevalence in regions examined was detected in Halfa. Statistically, the chi-square analysis showed that; there is an association between infection and location (P = 0.001).

Further studies for virus and antibody detection such as PCR and ELISA should be conducted to enables rapid identification of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus and to monitor the prevalence of the disease in other parts of the country.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association of Hepatitis Virus Infections with CD4 and CD8 among Certain Group of Lymphoma Patients in Babylon Provence

Raheem T. Obyes Al-Mammori, Azhar A. Lateef Al-Thahab, Alaa Sadiq Al-Awad

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/25845

This study was planned to detect the immunological association impact of hepatitis infection in lymphoma patients, There are two branches of this study, firstly theoretical background and secondly is practical as diagnostically and immunological impact. Investigate the immunological association of Hepatitis viruses on lymphoma patients by estimation of certain, auto antibodies and specific CD markers among clinically diagnosed patients of Hodgkin's and Non Hodgkin lymphoma admitted to malignancies registry center of Babylon. At the time limited between February 2012 and February 2013. Specific diagnosis is clinically done by consultant physician and histopathology's. The sample selection was classified as the following; newly diagnosed patients (HL, n= 17), (NHL. n= 33) and (30) healthy samples were chosen as control group as well as (9) autopsy samples examined by histopathologist and confirm it as a normal section before used as healthy lymph node control for CD markers. The examination of (CD4 and CD8) used as a monitor to evaluating the lymph node environment during infection, as well as screening test for different types of hepatitis viruses for both, patients and control. To confirm the link between immune reactivity with such condition, the Antinuclear and Anti mitochondrial antibodies also done by using immunoflourescence technique, because there are a few studies dealing with such relation and to find out the accurate and early diagnostic protocol for detection of risk patients to infect with such diseases.

According to this application, the clinically significant results showed that; the age groups distributed among young age (20 -29 y) for HL, while adult age at (50-59 y) for NHL. There were no differences between males and females. The frequency of hepatitis viruses revealed that HCV is more distributed at all patient groups at a higher percent (35.64%) than HBV (11.76%) and no positive result of HAV as well as no co – infetion with viral hepatitis were seen at the time of study. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes with positive CD4, CD8 markers could play a role in immunological microenvironment of both types of lymphoma .In conclusion mentioned that the increase of positive CD8 tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, and the ratio of CD4/ CD8 equal to (1:1) refers to that the tumor infiltrating lymphocytes are T lymphocytes, often CD8 CTLs, and there is progressive maturation of autoantibodies in association with viral activity among both lymphoma types.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatitis C Virus Infection among Chronic Renal Failure Patients Pre – Dialysis Therapy in Hodiedah City, Yemen

Mansoor Shueai Al Awfi, Mohammed Amood Al-Kamarany, Rasheed Mohsen, Mohammed Al Hilali, Waleed Al Khader, Saleem Al Jafari, Mona Galeb, Hanan Al Amodi, Balqis Moad

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/28632

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a significant problem in hemodialysis patients, which poses difficulty in the management of the patients in the renal dialysis unit.

Objective: This study aimed to detect and determine the prevalence of HCV in renal failure pre- dialysis patients (for the first time) in the renal dialysis center of Hodiedah city, Yemen.

Methods: The demographic data of 278 renal failure patients collected retrospectively for a period of 4 years and eight months from January 2011 to September 2015. All patients screened for HCV antibodies using one-step cassette style anti-HCV device. The positive samples were confirmed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The demographic data of patients were recorded namely sex, age, education, residence and occupation.

Results: Out of 278 patients, three cases (1.07%) were found having HCV infection. Out of the three positive patients, two cases (1.18%) were males and one case (0.92%) was female. Two cases of 132 patients (1.54%) were found in the 21- 40 age group and one case of 114 patients (0.88%) found in the 41- 60 age group. No prevalence was observed in the age group of < 20 years and > 60 years. HCV was detected in one case (0.79%) of 127 urban residence patients and in 2 cases (1.32%) of 151 rural residence patients. The prevalence of HCV was showed among non-educated subjects (two cases = 1.54%) and in educated subjects (one case = 0.68%). Out of 252 non-occupant patients, three cases (1.19%) were found to be positive HCV antibodies. No prevalence was observed in 26 occupant patients.

Conclusion: In conclusion, pre dialysis screening for HCV was an effective strategy taken to ensure containment of hospital acquired infection (HAI) by isolation of patients in certain machine.

Open Access Short Research Article

Decolourization of Vat Dyes by Bacterial Isolates Recovered from Local Textile Mills in Southwest, Nigeria

S. O. Adebajo, S. A. Balogun, A. K. Akintokun

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/29656

Aims: Waste water emanated from the use of synthetic dyes obtained from different textile and other dyestuff industries require treatment before they are discharge into the environment to prevent groundwater contamination. Considerable interest has been on decolourisation and degradation of dyes by microorganisms due to its efficiency and duration of treatment. In this study bacterial isolates were recovered from textile dye effluent and used in decolourization of textile dyes to non-toxic metabolites.

Study Design: Effluent samples were collected from two different local textile mills in Abeokuta, Ogun state, Nigeria.

Place and Duration of Study: Effluent sample were collected from local textile mills in Abeokuta, Ogun state during the dry season in the month of November and December, 2013

Methodology: Ability of bacterial strains isolated from textile wastewater were screened for vat dyes decolourization and high decolourization potential isolates were used for decolourization of different vat dyes.

Results: Thirty-four bacterial strains were isolated from textile wastewater. Screening of the thirty- four bacterial isolates on Luria-Bertani Agar medium supplemented with 100 mg/L of dye revealed four bacterial isolates as potential isolate for dye-decolourisation. The four bacterial isolates are: Bacillus firmus, Bacillus macerans, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella oxytoca. Decolourisation of vat black dye using all the potential four isolates showed that Bacillus macerans had highest decolourising potential of 75.04% while Bacillus firmus had the lowest decolourising ability of 41.42%. Klebsiella oxytoca had the highest decolourisation potential of 69.68% for vat brown dye while Staphylococcus aureus had the least decolourisation potential (33.33%). Bacillus firmus after 5 days showed the highest vat red dye decolourisation of 81.27% while Staphylococcus aureus had the least decolourisation activity of 34.67%.

Conclusion: Application of the bacterial strains under natural environmental conditions in the decolourisation is an indication of its ability and effectiveness in treatment of wastewater containing dye.