Open Access Case Report

Spontaneous Unilateral Breast Abscess Caused by Mycobacterium abscesuss: A Case Report

P. Mejuto, J. J. Palacios, B. Alonso, S. Martínez, M. Castillo

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/29624

Mycobacterium abscessus complex is a rapidly growing group of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Rarely, this organism causes breast infections. The majority of published studies reported an association between onset of infection and breast implants or post-traumatic injuries. We report a spontaneous case of breast abscess caused by M. abscessus that it was initially presumed as bacterial abscess. NTM should be considered in diagnosis of mastitis when standard bacterial culture results are negative or when it recurs despite standard antibiotic therapy. We believe this is the first report of spontaneous community acquired mastitis due to M. abscessus, in Spain.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Identification of Potential Probiotics Bacteria from the Gut of Oreochromis niloticus and Clarias gariepinus in Uganda

Charles Drago Kato, Mark Benjamin Mugaanyi, Samuel Majalija, Andrew Tamale, Nathan Lubowa Musisi, Asuman Sengooba

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/29721

Bacterial infections remain a hindrance to aquaculture expansion globally. Increased fish mortality and poor performance resulting from ill health has forced farmers to resort to the use of antibiotics globally. However, prolonged use of these drugs in aquaculture is becoming restrained as pathogens develop resistance to drugs and unpredicted long term effect on public health. Alternative approaches to control disease are proposed of which probiotics have come forward. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify potential probiotic bacteria in the guts of fish from different sampling sites around Kampala. Fish were obtained from selected cages, ponds, tanks and hatcheries around Kampala, including different parts of Lake Victoria. The fish were gutted and the guts aseptically swabbed with subsequent culture on both general purpose and selective media. The identification of various isolates was based on gram staining and biochemical tests. Probiotic screening was done using the agar spot method. Results revealed complete growth across all samples. The total microbial load was highest in the samples from the lake (1204.8±12.7 × 105cfu/g). Out of the three probiotic genera isolated, only Lactobacillus spp (LB) and Lactococcus spp (LC) showed antibacterial activity against selected pathogenic bacteria. The activity of LB was significantly (p< 0.0001) higher against Streptococcus spp (17.0±0.2 mm) as compared to Proteus at 9±0.02 mm and Pseudomonas (7.5±0.2 mm). Lactobacillus spp did not show any antimicrobial activity againstStaphylococcus aureus. For Lactococcus spp, probiotic activity was only detected against Proteus spp(5.5±0.2 mm). Although our study shows that Lactobacillus spp and Lactococcus spp possess probiotic activity against a number of pathogenic bacteria, characterization of these isolates is paramount before further manipulation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evolution Profile of Escherichia coli Resistance from January 2009 – April 2013 to Antibiotics at the Yaounde University Teaching Hospital, Cameroon

Estelle Madaha Longla, Emilia - Enjema Lyonga Mbamyah, Claude Ginette Mireille Kalla, William Abange Baiye, Anicette Betbui Chafa, Hortense Kamga Gonsu

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/29416

Many strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli) have been proven to be pathogenic and are sometimes responsible for deadly outbreaks. This bacterium has become more resistant to antibiotics to which it is often sensitive. The aim of this study was to study the evolution of E. coli resistance to antibiotics from 2009 to 2013 at the Yaoundé University Teaching Hospital.

We included archived bench files containing information on patient’s demographic data and results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The data were analyzed using Microsoft office, Excel 2007 software and SPSS.

A total of 350 strains of E. coli were collected from both hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients. The antimicrobial susceptibility was tested using 23 antibiotics from January 2009 to April 2013 at the Bacteriology Unit of the Yaounde University Teaching Hospital. We observed a decrease in the trend of the resistance to 8 of the antibiotics tested: Amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, cefuroxime, cefoxitin, imipenem, ofloxacine, colistin, gentamicin and netilmicin. Meanwhile, we noticed an increase in the trend of resistance to 15 antibiotics: Amoxicillin, cephalothin, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefixime, cefepime, aztreonam, amikacin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nitrofurantoin, chloramphenicol, fosfomycin). The trend observed were statistically significant, for the resistance rate to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (P value=0.002), also to resistance rates of amikacin and cefotaxime (P-values=0.008 and 0.014 respectively). 

This increase in resistance over the years to most of the commonly used antibiotics has caused E. coli to be classified among multidrug resistant bacteria. In order to avoid a therapeutic impasse, it is necessary to carry out sensitization against the abusive use of antibiotics; surveillance activities for multidrug resistant bacteria and nosocomial infections should be reinforced as E. coli is one of a most common nosocomial bacteria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 Associated with Gastroenteritis in Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

P. E. Omebije, L. Y. Adogo, B. Ajide

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/29277

Aim: To determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 associated with gastroenteritis in Minna, Niger state.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, Federal University of technology, Minna, between the months of August 2013 to April 2014.

Study Design: The study was a cross sectional study.

Materials and Methods: Four hundred and twenty eight stool specimens were collected using random sampling method. Stool specimens were obtained from outpatients who visited five different hospitals and clinics in Minna. These patients presented signs and symptoms suggestive of gastroenteritis. Isolates were examined for enteropathogens using standard bacteriological techniques. The physiological and biochemical characteristics of recovered isolates were compared with those of known taxa. Sorbitol fermenting Escherichia coli was further identified using the latex agglutination kit (Oxoid, England). The antibiotics susceptibility pattern of isolates was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method and read according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommendation.

Results: Out of the 428 stool specimens examined, 336 were positive for gastroenteritis. The prevalence of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in respect to age group reveals that patients between the age group of 0-9 years had the highest frequency of occurrence 19(39.58%) when compared to other age group in the study. Although there were more males 21(10.82%) than females 27(14.84%), Escherichia coli 0157:H7 was not significantly related to gender (p>0.05). The antibiotic profile reveals that Escherichia coli 0157:H7 isolates were susceptible to Ciprofloxacin (72.92%), Chloramphenicol (60.42%) and Tetracycline (43.75%). However, it was completely not susceptible to ampicillin (0.00%). Chi square test was used for statistical analysis.

Conclusion: It was observed from this study that there is a need to enlighten the public on the use/misuse of antibiotics, this is due to the fact that Escherichia coli 0157:H7 isolates were not susceptible to most of the drugs used in this study. This data also provide valuable information for health personnel’s in determining the appropriate antibiotic to be administered. There is also need to improve personal hygiene, environmental sanitation, provision of safe drinking water and health education in order to reduce infection with gastroenteritis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Extended Spectrum β-lactamase Detection and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Surgical Wounds

O. T. Olutola, A. Adeyanju, N. Torimiro

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/27848

Aims: The study aims to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern, incidence of β-lactamase and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from surgical wounds.

Study Design: A cross-sectional study designed to evaluate the incidence of antibiotic resistance and ESBL production in S. aureus recovered from surgical wound patients was conducted.

Place and Duration of Study: The study participants included hospitalized patients who   were presented with surgical wounds at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex (OAUTHC), Ile-Ife, Osun-State, Nigeria between April-December, 2013.

Methodology: Wound swabs were aseptically collected from one hundred and ten in-patients that have been hospitalized for more than 48 hr in a tertiary teaching hospital. The antibiotic susceptibility typing was conducted using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The β-lactamase was assayed with the acidometric method while the ESBL was screened with the double disk approximation method. The SHV and TEM resistance genes were detected with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based technique.

Results: Forty seven (42.7%) S. aureus isolates identified were all multi-resistant to the antibiotics tested, but 42 (89.4%) of the isolates were susceptible to imipenem. β-lactamase was detected in 26 (55.3%) of the S. aureus isolates and ESBL was phenotypically expressed in two isolates. However, sulfhydryl variant (SHV) gene was detected in 5 (19.2%) of the β-lactamase producing strains while the TEM gene was not detected.

Conclusion: This study suggests a continuous screening and surveillance of MRSA among the patients in the hospital setting due to the high prevalence of these microorganisms in Osun state, Nigeri

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus among Isolates from Wounds in Surgical Wards at Kabale Regional Referral Hospital, South Western Uganda

Baguma Andrew, Kiiza Aidah, Joel Bazira Bazira

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/27807

Background: Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a multidrug resistant organism that threatens the continued effectiveness of antibiotics worldwide and causes a threat almost exclusively in hospitals and long-term care settings. This study sought to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of MRSA at Kabale Regional Referral Hospital (KRRH) in South Western Uganda.

Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted between June and November 2014 involving 350 pus swabs from infected surgical sites. The samples were cultured on Mannitol salt agar at 37°C for 17- 24 hours and the colonies were tested and confirmed as S. aureus using API staph testing kit. Screening for MRSA was performed using the Cefoxitin (30 µg) disc on Muller Hinton agar medium. MRSA susceptibility was performed by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion on MHA for the following antibiotics: Ceftriaxone, Ciprofloxacin, Erythromycin, Imipenem, Trimethoprim – sulfamethoxazole, Levofloxacin and Gentamycin. The zones of inhibition were measured using a ruler and compared with the CLSI guidelines 2012.

Results: From the 350 pus swabs, 331 isolates of S. aureus were obtained, of which 179 (54%) isolates were Methicillin resistant. Majority (54%) of the MRSA isolates were highly sensitive to Gentamycin and Levofloxacin but highly resistant to Ceftriaxone (100%), Imipenem (100%), Trimethoprim – sulfamethoxazole (85%), and Erythromycin (67%).

Conclusion: The prevalence of MRSA in KRRH is high with high resistance to Ceftriaxone, Imipenem, Trimethoprim – sulfamethoxazole and Erythromycin. However, good sensitivity to gentamycin and Levofloxacin is still observed.