Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Salmonella Typhimurium Isolated from Commercial Poultry and Poultry Farm Handlers in Nasarawa State, Nigeria

T. Ibrahim, Y. B. Ngwai, G. R. I. Pennap, D. Ishaleku, P. A. Tsaku, R. H. Abimiku, I. H. Nkene, E. B. Bassey

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v28i430136

Aim: This study was designed to investigate the antimicrobial resistance profile of Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from commercial poultry and handlers in Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

Study Design: Investigative.

Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Laboratory, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria, from 1st November 2017 to 31th April 2018.

Methodology: A total of 1500 samples (poultry droppings, poultry flesh, feeds, handlers’ faeces and hand swabs) were screened for the presence of Salmonella Typhimurium using pre-enrichment and selective enrichment culture media. Subculture of inoculated samples was done on Salmonella-Shigella agar and Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate agar. Presumptive Salmonella colonies were confirmedas serovar Typhimurium using both the conventional biochemical screening tests and Microgen Bio product GN identification system and slide agglutination test using polyvalent antisera. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and interpretation were carried out as described by the Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute guidelines.

Results: Resistance was highest to Augmentin (98.1%) and lowest to Imipenem (1.0%). No resistance was observed in all the isolates from poultry handlers to Ceftriaxone, Ceftazidime, Gentamicin and Streptomycin; but all were resistant to Ampicillin and Augmentin. The resistance of isolates from poultry and handlers to all the antibiotics is significant (χ 2 = 13.037; P = 0.01). Most (86.7%, 92/106) resistant isolates belong to the multiple drug resistance class.The distribution of classes of resistance of isolates from poultry and handlers is significant (χ2 = 318; P = 0.00). MARI is greater than 0.2.

Conclusion: Salmonella Typhimurium with increasing multidrug resistance to antibiotics especially the β-lactam antibiotics has emerged in poultry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C among HIV Infected Pregnant Women Attending Care and Treatment at National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD), Abuja, Nigeria

Y. Ya’aba, S. B. Mohammed, K. T. Olatunji, A. Abubakar, M. Usoroh, O. C. Daniel, A. R. Abdulmumin, J. F. Nfongeh

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v28i430137

Introduction: Viral Hepatitis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are most common top ranking leading causes of infectious diseases and deaths worldwide. If these infections, remain unidentified and untreated among HIV infected pregnant women, children born to these pregnant women are at high risk of these viral hepatitis infections.

Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the sero-prevalence of HBV and HCV among HIV infected pregnant women in Abuja, Nigeria.

Methodology: A cross sectional study among 330 HIV infected pregnant women commencing antiretroviral therapy (ART) at National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD), Abuja, Nigeria were studied. The women were screened for the presence of HBV and HCV antibodies. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic data prior to recruitment/enrollment. Data were analyzed using statistical product and service solutions (SPSS) (version 20.0).

Results: Out of the 330 HIV infected pregnant women, 90 (27.3%) were HBV positive, while 5 (1.5%) were HCV positive (p = 0.42). The highest prevalence was observed among the age group of 20 – 29. However, none of the patients tested positive for both HBV and HCV.

Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that infection with viral hepatitis is common and of public health concern. Therefore, concerted efforts should be put in place to mitigate the epidemics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of Bioflavonoid from Fruit Pulps of Acacia nilotica Willd

O. P. Oladosu, N. R. Isu, I. M. Aboh, S. E. Okhale, A. T. Orishadipe, H. O. Egharevba

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v28i430139

The emergence of multi-drug resistance in bacteria has led to call for research and development of new leads as antibiotics from medicinal plants. Acacia nilotica (Linn) is a plant of multipurpose medicinal uses, three bioactive flavonoids (methyl gallate, gallic acid and catechin) were isolated from its fruit pulps through a bioassay guided fractionation technique and characterized based on High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectra and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectra. Antibacterial activity of these compounds was determined by microplate tetrazolium dye assay of broth microdilution technique against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia, Candida albicans and Bacillus subtilis. Catechin, methyl gallate and gallic acid at 19.5, 39 and 39 µg/ml respectively caused a significant bio-reduction in cells of test organisms. Time kill kinetic study of the extract shows that there was percentage of growth reduction in test organisms at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 hrs of contact. The extent and rate of killing of the organism by the extract at 2 x MIC followed the same trend as rate of killing was time dependent. Antibacterial effects of these compounds are within the breakpoint of control drug chloramphenicol and could serve as leads in new drug development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Viral Aetiology of Severe Acute Respiratory Infections in Hospitalised Adult Patients in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

Sandrine Michele Anne Sopi N'chott, Herve Kadjo, Alima Koné, Marius Adagba N'tapke, Klinignan Horo, Adele Kacou-N'douba, Joseph Alico Djaman, Hortense Faye-Kette

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v28i430140

Aims: Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and a significant cause of mortality worldwide. Although information is available on pneumonia in children, the incidence in adults in many parts of Africa including Côte d'Ivoire is unknown. Knowledge of local etiologic agents of pneumonia is critical for making reasonable decisions about treatment as differences in etiology may result in poor response to therapy chosen to cover common pathogenic microbes in studies done in high countries of income.

The objective of this study was to identify the viral etiology of pneumonia in adult patients with pneumonia in Abidjan, Côte d 'Ivoire.

Study Design: This is a prospective experimental study conducted on the basis of the successive recruitment of patients admitted to hospital for severe pulmonary interstitial pneumonitis confirmed by radio or CT scan of the thorax.

Place and Duration of Study: Pneumophtisiology department (PPH) of the University Hospital Center of Cocody (Côte d'Ivoire) and laboratory of Bacteriology- Virology of Pasteur Institut of Côte d’Ivoire, between February 2016 and October 2017.

Methodology: Among all admitted patients in the unit of pneumophtisiology (PPH) of the hospital University, 90 patients aged at least 18 years were pre-included. A total of 33 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) samples from adults suspected of pneumonia were analyzed. The viruses were identified by the real-time multiplex reverse polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

Results: Of the 33 BAL samples tested, 18.2% (6/33) viral agents were detected. Parainfluenza-3 PV-3 was the most prevalent virus (57.1%, 4/7), followed by coronavirus OC43 (14.3%, 1/7), coronavirus HKUI (14.3%, 1/7). ) and human rhinovirus (14.3%, 1/7).

A virus and virus association was detected, which was PV-3 associated with coronavirus HKUI (14.3%, 1/7).

Conclusion: The viral etiology of pneumonia is not very frequent in Côte d’Ivoire.

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiological Studies of Waterborne Diseases in Relation to Bacteriological Quality of Water

Nafi’u Abdulkadir, Rebecca O. Afolabi, Hizbullahi M. Usman, Gani Mustapha, Umar A. Abubakar

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v28i430141

Aim of the Study: Waterborne diseases are global burden with the increase in a number of cases more especially in rural areas of developing countries. We investigated the epidemiological distribution of waterborne diseases and bacteriological quality of water in Bodinga Sokoto Nigeria.

Research Design: The study used a retrospective design and determined the prevalence of some selected waterborne diseases and sanitary inspection. An experimental design was used for the determination of bacterial pollution in some water sources.

Place and Duration: The study was conducted at the General Hospital Bodinga and Department of Microbiology Sokoto State University within the period of one year.

Methods: A retrospective data of health records were collected from an out-patient register in Bodinga General Hospital, covered a period of three years from January to December (2015 -2017). A number of samples of water were collected from different sources in Bodinga, Danchadi, and Takatuku and were analyzed using the standard method.

Results: We found the most common waterborne diseases in the area are dysentery, 517(40.7%) typhoid 375(29.5%), gastroenteritis 202(15.9%) and diarrhoea 105(8.3%), while skin infection and cholera account for 36(2.8%) each. We observed that the diseases are widely distributed in the rainy season with high occurrence of 732(57.59%) cases than a dry season having 539(42.41%) cases. Male are more prone to diseases with 706 cases than female having 565 cases and 25-above years, as well as Children below the age of 5, are more vulnerable to diseases with the occurrence of 481 and 331 respectively.

Conclusion: This study suggests a possible strong relationship between waterborne diseases and poor water quality which contributed to the spread of diseases in the study area.