Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of Lactobacillus spp and Lactococcus spp Isolated from Various Parts of Pebbly Fish, Alestes baremoze

Charles D. Kato, Carol E. Kahuma, Victoria T. Namulawa, Nasser Kasozi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/28820

The study sought to identify microbial communities and potential probiotics in one of the popular fish species, Alestes baremoze. A total of 15 samples were collected from Lake Albert and swabs of the skin, gills and gut were made, and cultured on general purpose and selective media. The bacteria isolated were confirmed using morphological and biochemical tests while probiotic screening was done using the agar spot method. The prevalent potential pathogenic bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (100%) and Escherichia coli (67.7%). The highest total microbial load was generally recorded for samples from the skin. Staphylococcus spp had the highest total microbial load recorded from all the samples (skin, 8.50±22.1x102cfu/g and gills, 8.00±24.3x10cfu/g). When the effect of potential probiotic genera (Lactobacillus spp and Lactococcus spp) isolated from skin, gills and gut was investigated, Lactobacillus spp showed the highest overall activity against all test pathogens. The highest activity for Lactobacillus spp was demonstrated against E. coli (15.4±0.19 mm) and S. aureus (14.0±0.17 mm). The highest activity for Lactococcus spp was demonstrated against S. aureus (8.7±0.12 mm) and E. coli (7.2±0.1 mm). Furthermore, no probiotic activity was recorded against Streptococcus spp and Pseudomonas spp. No significant (p> 0.05) differences in antimicrobial activity were noted using Lactic acid bacteria isolated from the different fish body parts. Based on the positive results from this study, Lactobacillus spp. should be further characterised and studied in challenge experiments in fish to explore its probiotic effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Molecular and Structural Characterisation of Chikungunya Virus Isolated Before and After 2006 Epidemics

K. Sangeetha, Indu Purushothaman, S. Rajarajan

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/27880

Background: Chikungunya virus caused incapacitating infection during 2006 epidemics spanning 28 countries. The expansion of the disease and increased virulence resulted in neurological and ocular complications in the affected patients implicating changes in the structural and functional properties of the newly emerging strains of Chikungunya virus.

Objective: Hence the study was designed to understand the disparity between two strains isolated before and after 2006 epidemics by both in vitro and in silico approaches with respect to E1 gene.

Materials and Methods: Sequencing of E1 gene and phylogenetic analysis of the two strains were carried out followed by the determination of growth pattern. The impact of   aminoacid substitutions on the structural properties of E1 protein between the strains of Chikungunya virus was identified by different Bioinformatic tools.

Results: Sequencing and Phylogenetic analysis revealed the two strains as Asian (isolated before 2006) and East Central South African (isolated after 2006). ECSA strain produced 1.5 fold log10 titre increased viral production than the Asian strain at the multiplicity of infection 1. Influence of aminoacid difference on the structure of E1 protein between two strains by Bioinformatic analysis had shown a change in the conformations by the loss of two intermolecular hydrogen bonds in 121 position in Asian strain and electrostatic differences in 211 positions between the two strains was also observed.

Conclusion: As the interacting aminoacid 121 and 211 position lies near the fusion loop hence the difference in aminoacid position between the two strains could better influence fusogenicity and  stable trimer formation. This forms a preliminary insight on the impact of   aminoacid substitutions on the structural properties of E1 protein between the strains of Chikungunya virus and further experimental investigations are warranted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae in Tanta University Hospital, Egypt

Marwa M. E. Abd-Elmonsef, Haidy S. Khalil, Amal Selim, Sherief Abd-Elsalam, Walaa Elkhalawany, Sameh Samir, Mohamed S. Abd-Elghafar, Mohamed M. E. Abd-Elmonsef

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/29240

Aims: This study aimed to investigate the frequency of hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) isolated from various hospital-acquired infection cases admitted to Tanta University Hospital, Egypt and to determine the antibiotic resistance profile of these isolates.

Study Design: Retrospective observational study.

Place and Duration of Study: After collection of K. pneumoniae isolates from microbiology laboratory of Tanta University Hospital. Further work was carried out in the laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt, from June 2015 to May 2016.

Methodology: A total of 113 K. pneumoniae isolates were collected from different hospital-acquired infections and were tested for hypermucoviscosity phenotype by string test. Antibiotic disc diffusion test was performed for all isolates to identify their resistance pattern. Existence of rmpA gene was investigated by polymerase chain reaction.

Results: Forty-six out of 113 (40.71%) isolates were string test-positive (HVKP), the remaining 67 (59.29%) negative isolates were CKP. Twenty-six (56.52%) out of 46 HVKP isolates possessed rmpA gene. Lower resistance rates were observed in HVKP than CKP. 

Conclusion: ESBL production by rmpA-positive HVKP isolates in hospital-acquired infections is worrisome, though its rate is still low. Control of the spread of this organism in the hospital environment and the general community is an important concern.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Eligibility for Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B Infection among Prison Inmates and Female Sex Workers in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

Itodo Sunday Ewaoche, I. B. Otu-Bassey, Margaret Nabagenyi, S. J. Utsalo

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/27331

Hepatitis B is a growing worldwide public health issue today. The pathologies are responsible for considerable increase in healthcare expenses despite the widely recognized public health authority to keep then under control. Facts and figures have hitherto been misconstrued as regards Eligibility for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in most hospitals in Nigeria.

This Cross-sectional study therefore is to evaluate the prevalence and determine the proportion of the female sex workers and prison inmates eligible for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in Calabar.

Methods: Preliminary screening was done with a highly specific and sensitive HBsAg strip. Reactive samples were analyzed for hepatitis B markers using commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELIZA) kits. Chemistry and hematology analyzers were employed in carrying out LFT and FBC.

Results: The overall prevalence of HBV was 5.72%. The prevalence rate of 8.16% and 4.70% were recorded for the female sex workers and prison inmates respectively. A significant proportion of the inmates were chronically living with the virus and are eligible for treatment going by the APRI scores. Infections were significantly associated with the use of unsterilized equipment for tattooing and injection drug use.

Conclusion: The low observed intraprison and interbrothels prevalence of HBV underscore the need to vaccinate the inmates and sex workers population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of vanA and vanB Genetic Determinants in Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci in Kashmir Region of North India-A Hospital Based Study

Munazah Manzoor, Nargis K. Bali, Sulmaz Reshi, Abiroo Jan, Dalip K. Kakru, Abedullah Bhat, Junaid Ahmad

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/29246

Introduction: Enterococci have emerged as one of the most important multidrug resistant microorganisms over the past few decades and have been reported to be the third most important hospital-acquired pathogens. Indiscriminate use of vancomycin and extended spectrum cephalosporins in hospitals has significantly contributed to the emergence of vancomycin resistance in Enterococci. Transferable vancomycin resistance in Enterococci is predominantly encoded for by vanA and vanB gene clusters. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) allows rapid detection of these genes which is very important for infection control and prevention of nosocomial spread.

Aims: To estimate prevalence of VRE infections in our hospital and identify genetic determinants of vancomycin resistance in these isolates.

Methodology: This prospective study was carried out in the department of Microbiology, Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar J&K over a period of one year from 1st August 2013 to 30th July 2014. VRE isolated from clinical samples taken from patients admitted in the hospital or attending OPD were subject to DNA extraction and genotyping by PCR using vanA and vanB specific primers. PCR amplicons were then analyzed on 2% agarose gel by electrophoresis using ethidium bromide stain.

Results: Out of total 498 isolated Enterococcus spp., 35 (7.0%) were found to be vancomycin resistant after MIC testing. All the VRE were isolated from inpatients particularly from ICU (34.3%; p<0.001). Majority of VRE were isolated from blood samples (34.3%; p<0.001). Prior use of vancomycin was noted in 54.3% patients from whom VRE were isolated (p=0.003). All the 35 VRE isolates were positive for presence of vanA gene, whereas none of the VRE in our study harbored vanB gene which was in accordance with phenotypic resistance pattern of the isolates.

Conclusion: VRE have emerged as important pathogens in our hospital with a prevalence of 7.0% and vanA is the predominant genotype of the resistant strains.

Open Access Case Report

Recurrent Glaucoma Drainage Device Erosion Associated with Occult Infection with Biofilm-producing Organisms

Imran Masood, Peter Shah, Michael Benjamin, Adonis El Salloukh, Freda Sii

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/28289

Aim: We report the first case of recurrent erosion of a glaucoma drainage device (GDD) associated with chronic infection with biofilm-producing bacterial organisms.

Presentation of Case: A 68-year-old Caucasian female was referred to a tertiary glaucoma service with uncontrolled left inflammatory glaucoma and cataract in association with Fuchs Heterochromic Iridocyclitis. Combined glaucoma drainage device (GDD) implantation and phacoemulsification cataract surgery was performed. Fourteen months post-operatively, the patient presented with recurrent GDD erosion requiring multiple ocular surface repairs over the next 12 months. The device was finally explanted and sent for microbiological analysis after all surgical strategies to control the refractory erosions were unsuccessful.

Discussion: Cultures of the GDD were positive for Streptococcus parasanguis and Rothia dentocarisoa;organisms commonly found in the oral flora. S. parasanguis is known to form biofilm and is a common cause of late prosthetic valve endocarditis. Both organisms were sensitive to chloramphenicol, and the patient responded to topical chloramphenicol therapy with good final vision and intraocular pressure control.

Conclusion: Mechanical factors are often used to explain GDD erosion. This case demonstrates that in recurrent GDD erosion, occult chronic infection, particularly with biofilm-producing organisms, should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Surgical repair of the erosion may have a low chance of success in occult or chronic infection and definitive GDD explantation may be required. With the current trend towards earlier and more frequent GDD implantation in glaucoma, it is likely that this problem will increase in prevalence.

Open Access Case study

Description of the First Case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Strain Isolated in Cameroon

Francioli Koro Koro, Joseph Rodrigue Foe Essomba, Leslie Kaiyven Afi, Yannick Kamdem Simo, Félix Fotso Piam, Mbe Jean Romain, Jurgen Noeske, François-Xavier Etoa, Sara Irène Eyangoh

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/28963

Aims: Beijing remain the most M. tuberculosis lineage distributed and associated to multidrug resistance known worldwide. Its detection in a young person urge to make a large molecular epidemiology study in the concerned region since this can significantly impact tuberculosis (TB) control and vaccine strategies development.

Presentation of Case: In this study, we described the first case of M. tuberculosis Beijing strain isolated from a 20 years old girl in Cameroon. This strain was resistant to Isoniazid, Rifampicin, Streptomycin and Ethambutol. Spoligotyping and MIRU/VNTR genotyping analysis showed that the strain belonged to SIT1. The patient responded well to 12 months drug therapy of 4 KmGfxPtoHCfzEZ / 8 GfxPtoCfzEZ; although she was probably contaminated by her elder sister who died from TB few months before. This case may traduce a transmission event in Cameroon.

Conclusion: This was the first study that isolated M. tuberculosis Beijing lineage in Cameroon and showed the importance to purchase a large study in the concerned regions.