Open Access Original Research Article

Incidence of Antibiotic Resistant E. coli Isolated from Drinking Water Sources in Ondo, Southwestern Nigeria

Olukemi Aromolaran, Olubunmi Adesola-Famade, Olayinka Eyitope Omoseyin

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/26876

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in drinking water sources in Ondo, southwestern Nigeria.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biological Sciences, Wesley University of Science and Technology, Ondo between March and May, 2015.

Methodology: Fifty two (52) water samples were collected from streams and wells within and around Ondo town. Total aerobic mesophilic and coliform bacteria were determined by standard pour plate and multiple tube fermentation techniques respectively. Escherichia coli was isolated by cultivating on Eosin methylene blue (EMB) agar and tested for resistance to eight antibiotics by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method.

Results: Total mesophilic count in the well and stream water samples were between 0.01 x 105 - 8.76 x 105cfu/ml and 1.31 x 105 - 4.20 x 105 cfu/ml respectively. The MPN/100 ml of the water: well (0.40 - >160) and streams (0.70 - >160). E. coli was confirmed present in 67.74% of all the well water and 71.43% of the entire stream. 86.11% of all the isolates were resistant to beta-lactam class of antibiotics, nitrofurantoins (11.11%), aminoglycosides (2.78%) and fluoroquinolones (2.78%). 2.78% were resistant to three classes of antibiotics (nitrofurantoins, aminoglycosides and beta-lactam). 30.56% were resistant to ampicillin, while all the isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin.

Conclusion: There is need for good hygiene practices and indiscriminate use of antibiotics should be discouraged, in order to reduce the release of antibiotic resistant E. coli to the environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seroepidemiology of Incidentally Detected Asymptomatic HBsAg Positive Subjects from Southern State of India – A One Year Study

Sarwat Fatima, Ayesha Anjum

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/27483

Introduction: Hepatitis B virus infection is assuming a silent epidemic phase in India. Majority of the chronically infected are asymptomatic and unaware of their status. This pool of individuals called; incidentally detected hepatitis B positive subjects [IDAHS], unknowingly transmits infection to their contacts for decades. In order to curb the spread of infection they need to be identified tested, followed up and treated if required.

Aim: To assess the prevalence of asymptomatic Hepatitis B virus infection and risk factors for acquisition of same. Serological and biochemical profile of these individuals and influence of demographic factors on these markers.

Study Design: A cross sectional and observational study.

Place and Duration of Study: January 2014- January 2015 at Princes Esra Hospital of Deccan College of Medical Sciences.

Methodology: A total of 3260 blood samples were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen. Serum from IDAHS was later subjected to various serological and biochemical tests.

Results: Hepatitis B surface antigen was detected in 3.8% of the screened individuals. All were asymptomatic for the hepatitis B virus infection. Of the various risk factors enquired, intake of frequent intramuscular injections was the most common noted. Male predominance was seen for HBsAg and HBeAg as 56% and 100%. HBeAg and antiHBe were positive in 8% and 80% of individuals tested. Majority of the HBsAg and HBeAg positive subjects as 65% and 56% were young less than 30 years of age indicating the early age of acquisition of HBV infection and development of carrier state by 3rd decade of life. AntiHBc IgM and antiHBc IgG were positive in 20% and 98% of the individuals respectively. AntiHBs was above 10 IU/L in 4% of the tested. Serum alanine transaminase was raised in 12% of the individuals and all were HBeAg negative and antiHBe positive.

Conclusion: In light of above findings we suggest that a strategy is to be developed and implemented by public health care authorities to identify, evaluate, follow-up, link and treat these cases to contain the spread of infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation of Rare Salmonella Serovars, Wangata and Penarth from Chicken in Nsukka, Nigeria

Okechukwu J. Obi, Anthony C. Ike, Chinasa V. Olovo

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/27849

Introduction: Salmonella infections remain a veterinary and public health problem of major importance. Rare Salmonella serovars, whose epidemiological and serological patterns are not well understood, are becoming increasingly common in Nigeria and other parts of the world. We report the isolation of Salmonella enterica serovars Wangata and Penarth, two serovars that had not been previously reported in chicken in Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: A total of 300 chickens comprising of 150 intensively reared and 150 free range chickens, from selected farms and live bird markets, were sampled by cloacal swab using International Office of Epizootics (OIE) standards. Following standard bacteriological techniques, samples were pre-enriched in buffered peptone water, before transferring into Rappaport Vassiliadis medium and finally streaked onto Salmonella-Shigella agar (SSA). Salmonella spp. were identified biochemically and serotyped based on reaction with somatic (O), flagella (H), and capsular (Vi) antisera. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed following Kirby-Bauer (disk-diffusion) method.

Results: Out of the 300 samples, 4% (n = 12) were positive for salmonellae. The isolates comprise of 6 isolates of S. enterica ser Wangata, 5 S. enterica ser Enteritidis and 1 S. enterica ser Penarth. All the rare serotypes S. Wangata and S. Penarth were isolated from free range chickens, while S. Enteritidis was isolated from both intensively reared and free range chickens. There was no difference in the sensitivity pattern between the rare serovars and serovar Enteritidis to the antibiotics tested. S. Penarth had a higher MIC to Cotrimoxazole, but lower MBC for gentamicin and tetracycline.

Conclusions: Free range chickens could be vehicles for the transmission and/or reservoirs of the rare salmonellae serotypes in Nigeria. Any prophylactic program aimed at controlling these agents in poultry farms in Nigeria, must take into account the free range local chickens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacterization Effect of Culture Containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Deaminase Activity Implicated for Plant Development

Nisha Sharma, Baljeet Singh Saharan

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/27135

ACC deaminase regulates the production of ethylene level of plants by metabolizing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) into α-ketobutyric acid and ammonia. It was observed that two important phyllospheric bacteria of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) which are Paenibacillus polymyxa SNKp6 and Bacillus thuringiensisSNKr10 exhibit significant ACC deaminase activity which can help plant growth under stressful conditions like heavy metal contaminated sites. This growth activity was studied by in vitro seed germination of Vigna radiata plant. In the present study, we concluded that these two important bacterial strains can be helpful for plants to grow under stressful conditions and also help in their growth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Ethanol and Aqueous Extracts of Six Indigenous Spices on Listeria monocytogenes in Meat

Onoriode Christian Eruteya, Sunday Ayo Odunfa

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/26893

Aims: It was aimed at determining the antilisterial activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Thymus vulgaris L, Allium sativum L, Piper guineense Schum and Thonn, Monodora myristica (Garrtn) Dunal and Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A Rich and Ocimum gratissimum L.

Study Design: The experiment was conducted in triplicates and mean values calculated.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, between July and December, 2013.

Methodology: Spices were separately extracted with ethanol and water. Effects of the extracts (0.1-5.0% and 1.0%) were determined against L. monocytogenes (1× 108 cell/mL) in agar well diffusion and treated meat pieces while untreated meat served as control using standard methods. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA and Scheffe for mean separation at p˂0.05.

Results: Aqueous extract of P. guineense and T. vulgaris as well as ethanol extract of T. vulgaris inhibited L. monocytogenes growth at concentrations ranging from 1.0-5.0%, 0.5-5.0% and 0.1-5.0%, respectively. The reduction of L. monocytogenes attached to meat pieces varied during a 15 minutes immersion, ranging from 0.8 to 1.4 log10cfu/g. After 4-day storage at 30°C, L. monocytogenes exhibited significant higher growth in control samples compared to extract treated samples with initial population in log10 cfu/g increasing from 5.4-6.6 to 9.1-10.2 and 5.3-6.5 to 8.5-9.9 respectively.  There was no significant difference between control and treated samples stored at 10oC for 15 days, although initial population increased from 5.4-6.6 to 8.5-8.8 log10cfu/g and 5.2-6.5 to 8.2-8.5 log10cfu/g respectively.

Conclusion: The result obtained in this study indicates the potential application of T. vulgaris in the control of L. monocytogenes.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Evaluation of Antagonists and Fungicides in Controlling Citrus Gummosis Caused by Phytophthora, Phytopythium and Pythium species in Tunisia

Najwa Benfradj, Slim Tounsi, Naïma Boughalleb-M’Hamdi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/27247

Aims: This study investigated the efficiency of some bioagents and fungicides against causals agents of gummosis of citrus.

Study Design: Antifungal activities of bioagents and effect of fungicides.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biological Sciences and Plant Protection, Higher Institute of Agronomy of Chott Mariem, 4042, Sousse, Tunisia, between June 2015 and July 2015.

Methodology: Antifungal activity was carried out using dual culture and sandwich plate methods. Antibacterial activity was carried out using bacterial suspension; while fungicide effect was carried out using food poisoned technique. The mycoparasitim of fungal antagonists was also determined.

Results: The tested bioagents and fungicides showed significantly effect on mycelial growth inhibition of the pathogens compared to the control. In the dual culture assay, the highest percent of the mycelia growth inhibition (90%) was obtained by T. viride and T. harzianum. However, P. digitatum and P. italicum revealed to be the least effective with, respectively, 70% and 60% of growth inhibition. The effect of volatile substances of these bioagents showed also that T. viride exhibited the highest percent of inhibition (85%), followed by T. harzianum (75%), P. digitatum (60%) and P. italicum (50%). The mycoparasitim was also noted. Bacillus isolates were found significantly effective in reducing the mycelial growth of the Oomycotaspecies, with a percent of mycelium inhibition verging from 95% to 54%. However, copper fungicides generated the highest percent of the mycelial growth inhibition (100%), following by the acid citric and borax fungicides which recorded a percent of the mycelial growth inhibition of 10.82% and 12.93%, respectively.

Conclusion: Thus the study indicated that the integration of bioagents can provide a better management of the gummosis of citrus.