Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activities of Selected Four Less Known Pulses

R. Prabakaran, Pranav N. Pradeep, K. Jeyakumar, Bibin Joseph

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/25596

The antimicrobial activity of hot water extracts of Entada scandens, Vicia faba, Vigna aconitifolia and Vigna sinensis seeds were analysed against three different microbial strains with respect to various concentrations (30–90 µg/ml) the zone of inhibition of test concentrations were compared with standard concentration of control (Erythromycin 10 µg/ml and Chloramphenicol 10 µg/ml). Among the two different bacteria used in Streptococcus pyogenes the zone of inhibition is higher (19.05±0.29) in 90 µg/ml concentration in aqueous extracts of E. scandens, in Vicia faba the zone of inhibition is (21.10±0.27 mm) in the case of V. aconitifolia the zone of inhibition was observed in 30 µg/ml concentration (20.2±0.21) and in V. sinensis at 90 µg/ml concentration the zone of inhibition was (21.4±0.28 mm) observed. Klebsiella pneumoniae the extracts of E. scandens shows the zone of inhibition is higher (20.01±0.12 mm) in Vicia fabathe zone of inhibition (20.3±0.14 mm) In the case of V. aconitifolia (19.3±0.14) and V. faba is (21.4±0.11 mm). The human fungal pathogen like Candida albicans the zone of inhibition was observed in hot water extracts of Entada scandens, was (20.00±0.19 mm) in 90 µg/ml concentration, in V. faba was (20.2±0.11 mm. In case of V. aconitifolia the zone of inhibition was (19.3±0.19 mm) and in V. sinensis the zone of inhibition is higher in C. albicans (19.1±0.11 mm) in 90 µg/ml concentration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Maize Storage Technologies in Benin: Fungal Ecology and Mycotoxin Contamination

Rafiatou Ba, Boniface Yehouenou, Ursula Houngue, Pascal Agbangnan, Philippe Sessou, Nelly M. F. Monteiro, Marcel T. Donou Hounsode, Fernand Gbaguidi, Lamine Baba-Moussa

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/26297

Objectives: The present work was to study the fungal ecology of maize according to the various storage technologies and evaluate the ability of fungal isolates to produce mycotoxin.

Materials and Methods: Seven maize storage technologies (from A to G) were selected in seven agro-ecological zones and 198 samples of stored maize were collected based on storage technologies. The presence of mold was observed in all the areas prospected in all the type of technologies used. The identification of the mycotoxins produced by mildews isolated of the stored maize has been performed by Thin Layer Chromatography.

Results: Eleven (11) molds were isolated from the samples collected and three storage modes were observed. Fusarium sp, Penicillium sp and Aspergillus niger were the prevalent species with frequencies of 20.71%; 15.15% and 12.12%, respectively. Grain maize mode (55%) was the most used. Also the isolated molds have the ability to produce the toxins when the conditions are favorable. The identification of mycotoxins by Thin Layer Chromatography showed that the isolated and identified molds were producers of mycotoxins. A. parasiticus and A. flavus were not observed in technologies A and B in all the study areas. A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus, F. graminearum, F. oxysporum and P. roqueforti showed their ability to produce Aflatoxin B2, Aflatoxin G1, Ochratoxin A, Deoxynivalenol, moniliformin and Roquefortin C, respectively.

Conclusion: These results clearly show an correlation between the technologies of storage and the contamination by the mycotoxins.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lactobacilli Cultures against Ochratoxin A Producing Moulds Isolated from Cocoa in the South West Region of Cameroon

Bertrand Tatsinkou Fossi, Bongsiysi Gilake Ngah, Gordon Takop Nchanji, Samuel Wanji, Robert Ndjouenkeu

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/25072

The presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in cocoa beans is a major health concern, due to its deleterious effects on humans and animals. During the traditional processing and storage of cocoa, fungi contamination occurs. Many of these fungi, produce mycotoxins that can cause acute or chronic intoxication and damage to human and animals after ingestion of the contaminated food and feed. The bio-control of ochratoxigenic moulds by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) could provide a safer alternative compared to the use of fungicides. The present study aims at investigating the potential of selected lactobacilli strains to inhibit the growth of OTA producing moulds. Cocoa samples were collected in the South West region of Cameroon. The mycoflora of cocoa beans were isolated and identified using phenotypic characteristics on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and microscopy after application of lactophenol cotton blue stain. LAB used were isolated from fermented palm and raffia wines and fermented pineapple juice by pour plate method on De Man Rogosa and Sharpe Agar. Phenotypic identification of LAB were identified using API 50 CHL kit. Colony PCR was used to confirm whether the isolates belong to LAB group. The inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus sp against ochratoxigenic moulds was carried out on agar using the overlay method and in broth by turbidimetric analysis. Aspergillus sp were the most prevalent fungi in cocoa samples. Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus niger were isolated in all samples. Lactobacillus. plantarum exhibited the highest inhibitory activity against OTA producing moulds. The percentage of inhibition was ranged from 10 to 46.5%. A. ochraceus was the most susceptible mould with the various LAB isolates. The quantification of OTA using ELISA kit showed significant reduction in OTA production (p<0.05) during mixed culture of moulds with lactobacilli. Lactobacilli from fermented drinks could be used for biological control of OTA producing fungi.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Epidemiological Study of Onychomycosis in Kashmir Valley

Farhath Kanth, Tehmeena Wani, Sheikh Manzoor, Iffat Hassan Shah, Gulnaz Bashir, Nargis Bali, Ghulam Mohiuidin

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/25970

Background: Onychomycosis is a common fungal infection of the nails that apart from causing disfigurement of the nails acts as a source of other fungal infections. Prompt diagnosis along with appropriate antifungal therapy can help prevent such complications. 

Aims: To find out the prevalence and fungal aetiology of onychomycosis in patients presenting to the Department of Dermatology Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences Medical College/ Hospital Srinagar.

Settings and Design: This prospective study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar in collaboration with the Department of Dermatology Sher-i- of Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences College, Bemina for a period of two years (August 2010 to September 2012).

Materials and Methods: A total of 300 samples from patients attending the Dermatology OPD with features suggestive of onychomycosis were included in this study. Microscopy of the samples was done in 20% potassium hydroxide (KOH) and culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) with chloramphenicol and SDA with chloramphenicol and cyclohexamide. Tubes were incubated at 37°C and 25°C for 4-6 weeks and examined biweekly for growth. Microscopic analysis of the growth was done using lactophenol cotton blue (LCB).

Results: Age of cases ranged from 3 months to 85 years with female preponderance. Distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis (DLSO) was the most common clinical type. Overall, positivity of microscopy was 73.5% and of culture was 29%. Sensitivity and specificity of KOH as compared to culture was 83.9% and 30.3% respectively. Among the fungi isolated, 98% were dermatophytes and 2% were non-dermatophytic fungi (Fusarium spp.). Commonest dermatophytes isolated were Trichophyton rubrum followed by Trichophyton violaceum.

Conclusion: KOH and culture are complementary to each other and should be included in the diagnostic evaluation of onychomycosis which is commoner in our population.

Open Access Original Research Article

High Rate of Antibiotic Resistance in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a University Hospital

Olivia Sochi Egbule, Ayobola Daniel Ehwarieme, Ubreye Benjamin Owhe-Ureghe

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/25324

Aims: Management of infections in new-born remain a major problem globally due to their delicate nature. Bacteremia in new born has resulted in high mortality. Determining the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylocccus aureus which dominates in sepsis is important.

Study Design: During a 4 month period in 2015, 98 blood samples were collected from new-born admitted to a university hospital in Delta State, Nigeria.

Methodology: Isolation of organisms were based on growth patterns, morphological appearance and biochemical analysis. Antimicrobial susceptibility were determined following Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion methods, using 11 different antibiotics which include Gentamicin (10 µg), Ofloxacin, (5 µg) Ciprofloxacin, (5 µg) Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (30 µg), Ceftazidime (30 µg), Cefuroxime, (30 µg) Trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (25 µg), Nitrofurantoin (300 µg), Cefixime (5µg), Cloxacillin(10µg) and Erythromycin (10 µg).

Results: A total of 30 (30.61%) Escherichia coli, 20 (20.41%) Klebsiella pneumoniaè and 18 (18.37%) Staphylococcus aureus were isolated. Susceptibility results indicate that all isolates were highly resistant to Gentamicin and to the two lower generation cephalosporins tested; Ceftazidime and Cefuroxime. In addition, all isolates were multidrug resistant.

Conclusion: Our data has revealed that a serious problem of antimicrobial resistance exist among bloodstream isolates of new-born in our hospital.

Open Access Review Article

A Review of Nosocomial Infections in Sub-Saharan Africa

Elizabeth N. Mbim, Clement I. Mboto, Bassey E. Agbo

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/25895

Nosocomial infections are a major public health problem globally and are on the increase despite efforts in hospital infection control measures and contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality.  Naturally, any micro-organism has the potential to cause infection in hospitalized patients however, only a few including Staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococci, fungi and to a lesser extent, viruses and parasites are responsible for the majority of nosocomial infections. In sub-Saharan Africa, data available show that the incidence of nosocomial infections ranges from 2-49% with patients in intensive care units having the   highest rate ranging from 21.2-35.6%. The prevalence of nosocomial infections have  been reported  to vary  between 1.6%-28.7% in Burkina Faso, United Republic of Tanzania, Ghana, Mali, Cameroon, Gabon, Uganda, Burundi, Democratic republic of Congo and Senegal. In Nigeria and Ethiopia, the total accruing occurrence in surgical wards has been reported to vary from 5.7%-45.8% with the later having an incidence as high as 45.8% and an incidence density equal 26.7 infections per 1000 patient days in paediatric surgical patients. In addition, 3.4 -10.9% of hospital-associated infections often  result to mortality in most developed countries though these figures are suspected to be higher in developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa including Nigeria. However, simple and effective control programmes together with effective training of healthcare workers will go a long way in reducing the endemic nature of nosocomial infections in sub Saharan Africa. This paper highlights the natural history, distribution,   risk factors of nosocomial infections especially in sub Saharan Africa as well as its contributory factors.