Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Antibiogram of Staphylococcus aureus from Patients Admitted at Specialist Hospital Okitipupa, Ondo State, Nigeria

E. Nmema Eucharia

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/25360

Aims: To isolate and determine the antimicrobial resistance and susceptibilities of Staphylococcus aureus from patients hospitalized at State Specialist Hospital, Okitipupa, Ondo State, Nigeria.

Study Design: Prospective cross sectional.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biological Sciences, Ondo State University of Science and Technology, Okitipupa, between March and April 2015.

Methodology: Forty three (43) samples were obtained from nasal cavity, skin, wound, or umbilical cord of 20 patients aged 4 days to 80 years. Isolates were identified by cultural characteristics on Mannitol Salt Agar, Nutrient agar and biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer). Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index for each S. aureus was determined.

Results: Seventeen S. aureus isolates were identified. Nine S. aureus strains recovered from 18 samples from male patients was higher than 8 strains recovered from 25 samples from females. 21-30 age-group yielded the highest number of S. aureus isolates (7 strains), followed by 31-40 age group (5 strains). Eleven (64.7%) strains showed multiple resistances ranging from 55.6% to 88.8%, four (23.5%) strains showed multiple resistances ranging from 33.3% to 44.4%, one (5.9%) strain (N1) showed 100% resistance, while one (5.9%) strain (O1) showed 100% sensitivity. 70.6% of the isolates had a MAR index above 0.5 indicating that they probably originated from an environment where antibiotics are frequently used or abused. The highest resistance was offered to the β-lactam antibiotics, including oxacillin (88.2%), cloxacillin (82.4%) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (76.5%); and the cephalosporins: cefuroxime (70.6%) and ceftazidime (64.7). Resistance to ceftriaxone (cefuxitin) was the lowest (23.5%). Resistance to erythromycin was high (70.6%), but gentamicin and ofloxacin were offered relatively low resistance (41.2%) respectively.

Conclusion: The study revealed multiple antibiotic resistances in S. aureus isolated from hospitalized patients. The preponderance of multiple antibiotic S. aureus in the hospital environment continues to present challenges to the health sector. The high rates of resistance to the β-lactams – oxacillin, cloxacillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cephalosporins highlight the decreasing importance of β-lactams in the therapy of S. aureus infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diversity of Plasmid Profile in Multi-drug Resistant Non- E. coli Intestinal Flora Lacking Association with Resistance Phenomenon

Nazneen Jahan, Jamil Mahmud, Fatema Akter, Salequl Islam, M. Hasibur Rahman

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/25725

Aims: To study the plasmid diversity of intestinal non- Escherichia coli community, describe their potential as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance phenomenon and to find any association of resistance phenomenon with the plasmid content if any.

Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Microbiology, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka between June 2014 to July 2015.

Methods: Stool samples were cultured onto MacConkey agar plates for selective isolation of Gram negative bacteria. Identification of intestinal non- E. coli was done through conventional biochemical tests according to Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Plasmid extraction was done according to the modified hot alkaline method. Antibiogram was carried out by disc diffusion method and MIC determination by agar dilution assay.

Results:  One hundred and forty four representative colonies were selected from stool culture of 60 healthy human subjects. Of 144 colonies, 90 belonged to 21 non- E. coli species shared by 11 genus. Majority of the isolates (81%, 73 of 90) showed resistance to one or more antibiotics while the rest 18.9% (17 of 90) were sensitive to all the antibiotics used (amoxicillin, cefixime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim). Highest resistance frequency was observed against amoxicillin (67%) followed by cefixime (28%), gentamicin (24%), sulphamethoxazole–trimethoprime (16%), tetracycline (14%), and ciprofloxacin (8%). A notable proportion of the bacteria (20%) were found to be multi-drug resistant. Majority of the isolates (57%) were found to contain 1 to 6 plasmids and exhibited 34 different plasmid profiles. Thirty two isolates (of 90) carried plasmids with high molecular weight (> 20 Mdal) including 4 isolates that carried large plasmids of approximately 140 Mdal size.

Conclusion: Findings of this study indicate that intestinal non- E. coli population may function as a reservoir of heterogeneous plasmid. Although no direct association was observed between resistance phenomenon and presence of plasmids in general, to study the role(s) of individual plasmid for encoding any particular drug resistance phenomenon and /or pathogenic gene(s) would be an interesting line of inquiry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Serological Detection of Equine Herpes Virus (EHV) Type 1 and 4 in Sudan

H. A. Wegdan, K. S. Intisar, M. M. Shaza, O. A. Algezoli, A. Ballal, H. A. Ihsan, M. E. Sahar, A. M. Baraa, H. S. Manal, E. A. Muna, K. M. Taha, E. M. Nada, Y. H. Ali

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/25803

Aims:  This study was designed to investigate the presence of EHV 1 & 4 in blood serum of horses and donkeys in different localities in Sudan.

Study Design: A total of 208 blood serum samples were collected from horse and donkeys from different localities in Sudan including; Khartoum, Atbara, Wadmadani and Nyala. With the exception of some horses (cross or foreign breeds), all animals examined were of Indigenous breed’s, different ages, and apparently healthy; clinical signs to equine herpes or any disease were not detected.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was undertaken in the Virology lab, Veterinary Research Institute, Ministry of Animal Resources, Fisheries and Range Lands, Khartoum during December 2012 to February 2013.

Methodology: Blood serum samples obtained from horse and donkeys were investigated in different localities in Sudan using an indirect ELISA (SVANOVIR® EHV1/EHV4-Ab).

Results: EHV 1 was detected in 1.6% of the horse samples from Khartoum, Nyala and Wadmadani, and in 7.3% of the donkeys’ sample from Wadmadani and Nyala; while EHV 4 was detected (in all localities) in 58.7%, and 58.5% of the samples collected from horses and donkeys respectively. Mixed infection with both types (1 and 4) was recorded in horse samples from Khartoum and Nyala and in donkeys sample from Wadmadani and Nyala. Statistically, there is an association between infection and location (P –value < 0.001)

Conclusion: Equine herpes virus 1 and 4 was detected for the first time in horses and donkeys in Sudan. High seroprevalence of EHV type 4 (58.7%, in horse and 58.5% in donkey’s serum samples) was recorded, compared to 1.6% and 7.3% of type 1 for horses and donkeys respectively. Mixed infection with both types 1 and 4 was recorded in horse samples from Khartoum and Nyala and in donkey’s sample from Wadmadani and Nyala. Further studies for virus detection such as PCR should be conducted to enables rapid identification of specific virus causing disease EHV I or EHV 4.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical Changes and Sensory Evaluation of Soy Iru Produced Using Starter Culture

Afolabi Folake Titilayo, Abdulkadir Musliu

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/26159

Soybean (Glycine max L.) was processed into iru using Bacillus subtilis SBI 13 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides as starter culture and calabash as fermenting container. The fermenting soya beans were analysed for pH and titratable acidity, free amino acids and total soluble sugar. The Enzymatic analysis (protease, amylase and lipase) was also carried out. The combination of Bacillus subtilis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides showed higher protease and amylase activities than when they were used singly. The samples were fermented for 3 days after which were evaluated for sensory qualities. The pH of the samples ranged from 7.08 to 8.88, the titratable acidity ranged from 0.58 to 0.73, the total free amino acids ranged from 1.10 to 6.29% and the total soluble sugar ranged from 18.02 to 29.29%. All the iru samples were acceptable by the sensory panelists but the soy iru fermented with both Bacillus subtilis SBI 13 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides SBI 15 (Bacillus + LAB soy iru) was the most preferred.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of Dengue Fever Virus Serotype – 4 by using One-Step Real-Time RT-PCR in Hodeidah, Yemen

Murad Alahdal, Jamal Al-Shabi, Mahmoud Ogaili, Qais Yusuf Abdullah, Said Alghalibi, Aisha O. Jumaan, Mohammed Amood AL-Kamarany

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/24380

Background: Dengue and other fever like illnesses including chikungunya and malaria are common in Hodeidah, Yemen. Several outbreaks confirmed the presence of dengue serotypes 1-3.

Aim: Confirm dengue fever infection and identify the circulating dengue virus serotypes in Hodeidah, using real time one step Reverse Transcription–Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR).

Methods: Suspected dengue cases presented to health facilities between September 2012 and June 2013. Cases were informed about the study and asked to participate; 179 patients consented and were interviewed and blood samples were collected. The samples were tested at the National Centre of Public Health Laboratories (NCPHL) in Sana’a. Samples were initially tested by Enzyme Linkage Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Viral RNA was then extracted and prepared for serotypes detections using real time RT–PCR in one step pathway. Furthermore, agarose gel electrophoresis documentation system was used to confirm dengue serotypes.

Results: Dengue virus was confirmed by RT-PCR in 69 of 179 specimens. The four dengue fever serotypes were identified. DENV-4 was the predominant serotype at 31.88%, followed by   DENV-2 at 23.18%, DENV-3 at 20.28%, and DENV-1 at 10.14%. Concurrent infection with more than one serotype was detected in 14.49% of the specimens.

Conclusion: We confirmed dengue virus infection using real time RT-PCR and identified DENV-4 serotype for the first time in Yemen. We also detected concurrent infections with more than on serotype. All serotypes are now present in Yemen increasing the risk of severe dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in future infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Incidence of Campylobacter jejuni in Chicken’s Meat and Faeces in Kano Metropolis, Kano State, Nigeria

A. Bukar, J. M. Ajagbe

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/25582

This study was conducted to determine the incidence of Campylobacter jejuni in Chicken meat and faeces in Kano metropolis. A total of 300 samples comprising of 180 faecal samples and 120 chicken’s meat were collected from Poultry markets located within 6 local government areas of Kano metropolis, over a period of 6 months, from July, 2014 to January, 2015. All the samples were analyzed using Cultural and Biochemical methods. The confirmed isolates of C. jejuni were randomly selected and subjected to further identification by Molecular techniques (polymerase chain reaction and Nucleotide sequencing). Out of the 300 samples examined, 162 (54%) were Campylobacter positive, while 142 (47.3%) were identified as C. jejuni. Statistical analysis revealed that there is no significant difference (P < 0.05) in the isolation rates of C. jejuni at the different locations sampled. Based on this study, the recovery of C. jejuni at high rate in processed chicken’s meat is of a serious public health importance as consumption of improperly processed or contaminated chickens has been implicated as the root cause of sporadic infection and outbreaks of Campylobacteriosis worldwide.