Open Access Original Research Article

Multidrug Resistant Providencia stuartii in Chicken Droppings: Public Health Implications for Poultry Workers and Associated Communities in nearby Dhaka Metropolis, Bangladesh

Arifatun Nahar, Mahfuza Marzan, Mashuk Siddiquee, Shamsun Nahar, Kazi Selim Anwar, Salequl Islam

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/25883

Introduction: Poultry farms (PFs) have appeared successful and wide spread business-industry in Bangladesh, which often remains contaminated with various hazardous microorganisms when standard hygiene practices are compromised. We sought to investigate a zoonotic human pathogen, Providencia stuartii and their antibiotic resistance pattern in chicken droppings collected from local poultry farms in Savar area, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study to find the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria from chicken droppings in linked to antibiotic-uses and abuses in PFs. Random chicken droppings were collected from broiler type chickens, layer-chickens, and pre-starter broiler chickens to make samples representative. Following standard bacteriological culture, semisolid chicken-droppings were diluted aseptically, enriched in buffered peptone water, and then streaked onto a xylose-lysine-deoxycholate agar plate. Selected P. stuartii colonies were identified biochemically using API 20E (BioMe´rieux) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed following Kirby-Bauer (disk-diffusion) method.

Results: We reported the isolation of P. stuartii for the first time in Bangladesh in chicken droppings collected from randomly selected local PFs. Red colored colonies without black centre on XLD medium were considered as presumptive Providencia stuartii that were subsequently confirmed by API 20E system. Six chicken-droppings revealed the presence of P. stuartii from a total 70 samples tested, showed a prevalence of 8.6% with overall farm prevalence is 71.4%. We took 11 isolates from the six positive samples to examine their antibiotic resistance and found 82% of them were resistant to nalidixic, 73% to ampicillin, and 54.5% to trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole. Relatively ciprofloxacin and gentamicin appeared more functional, where only 27.3% and 18.2% strains showed resistant, respectively. Over 54% of the isolates appeared resistant to >3 antibiotics and 36.4% with two different antibiotics. None of the isolates remained susceptible to all the 6 antibiotics tested.

Conclusion: Detected MDR P. stuartii in chicken-droppings from local poultry farms may contribute their transmission to surrounding communities and may implicate serious biosecurity concern in environmental and food-safety issues in resource constraint countries, like, Bangladesh.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Pre-treatment Methods on the Quality Characteristics of Stored Irvingia kernel

Fidelis Azi, F. C. Ogbo, Amechi S. Nwankwegu, Michael O. Odo, Martin O. Anagboso

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/23314

Aims: To evaluate effects of pre-treatment methods on the keeping quality of stored Irvingia kernels using ethanol and Ash from palm fronds as preservative agents.

Study Design: Study of the microbial isolation using sabouraud dextrose agar and nutrient agar, introduction of these microbial isolates on the differently treated freshly harvested Invingia kernels under experimental conditions.

Place and Study Duration: Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing Nnamdi Azikiwe University, PMB 5025, Awka, Anambra state, Nigeria between March, 2013 to September, 2014.

Methodology: Sample collection, kernel extraction, treatment with Ash and ethanol and storage in a storage shelf for a period of six (6) months then microbial enumerations and chemical analyses. Effectiveness of each preservative agent were assayed both chemically and microbiologically.

Results: Results showed that the pre-treated samples had better quality characteristics than that of the control sample at the end of the storage period. Fungal population of the pre-treated samples differed significantly with the untreated sample (control) at (P<0.05). Total aflatoxin analysis carried out on the samples was positive for the control sample only thus, depicted a contamination by Aspergillus flavus which was identified in the control sample. Aflatoxin concentration of 13.90 ppb was reported. This is above the National Agency for Food and Drugs administration and Control, Nigeria (NAFDAC) recommended maximum permissible level in food (10 ppb). Zero bacterial counts upon enumeration using  nutrient agar  was reported in both treated and untreated samples and therefore, suggested that preponderance of the Irvingia kernels post- harvest spoilage organisms are fungi.

Conclusion: Results from this work showed that pre-treatment of Irvingia kernel with ethanol before storage significantly improved the chemical and microbial quality characteristics of the Irvingia kernel during the storage. Pre – treatment with the ethanol also reduced the fungal populations of the stored Irvingia kernels and inhibited the growth of Aspergillus flavus which is a known aflatoxin producer.

It is therefore recommended that Irvingia kernel be pre – treated with ethanol before storage as this will not only improve the storage quality of the Irvingia kernel but will also guarantee health and safety of the people that consume the kernel.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo Evaluation of Microorganisms Isolated from Peels of Selected Carbohydrate Rich Tubers

A. O. Momoh, O. S. Fadare

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/26177

Aims: To detect the effect of microbes isolated from peels of Carbohydrate rich tubers on Albino rats.

Study Design: The study was a comparative and descriptive study. Cassava and cocoyam peels were bought from Obanla market, Federal University of Technology, Akure. Those samples were put into a sterile polythene bag and transported to microbiology laboratory for microbiological analysis.

Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Laboratory, Elizade University, Department of Animal Production and Health Research Laboratory, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State. The study was performed between September, 2015 and March, 2016

Methodology: Two gram of the samples was grounded in a mortar with pestle. The serial dilution method was aseptically used to reduce the microbial load present in the collected samples. Nutrient agar and potato dextrose agar were used to isolate the bacteria and fungi respectively from the samples under aseptic condition. Biochemical test and sugar fermentation were carried out on the bacterial isolates after pure culture was obtained.

Results: The isolated bacteria were Streptococcus faecalis, Corynebacterium fascians, Micrococcus luteus, Alcaligenes faecalis and Aeromonas hydrophila. Fungal isolates were identified using lactophenol cotton blue. Fungi isolated includes: Articulospora inflata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Geotrichum albidum, Torula herbarum and Halosporangium panum. All the bacteria isolates were used to infect Albino rat. The uninfected rats were used as control. The histopathological and haematological analysis carried out on liver and intestine of the albino rats showed that the microorganisms caused a pathological change that ranges from necrosis of the liver hepatocytes, hepatocellular drainage and hemorrhage to vacuolation and inflammatory cell infiltrations of the intestinal wall.

Conclusion: This study has shown that cassava and cocoyam peels can act as vehicles for disseminations of pathogenic microorganisms and should therefore be properly disposed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Carrier-based Rhizobium leguminosarum Inoculants on the Soil Physicochemical Characteristics, Nodulation and Growth of Soybean

Ojiagu Nnenna Chinelo, Onuorah Samuel Chinedu, Ojiagu David-Kingsley

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/25143

Aims: To evaluate the effect of carrier-based inoculants on the soil physicochemical characteristics, nodulation and growth of soybean.

Study Design: Examination of different carrier.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Applied microbiology and Brewing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, from February 2014 and March, 2015.

Methodology: Field experiment of soybean mixed with sawdust and cassava peels inoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum. Growth parameters of soybean and physicochemical characteristics of the soil were checked after 40 days of planting.

Results: There was significant increase in the calcium, magnesium and potassium contents, total nitrogen and conductivity of the soil after the field experiment. The shoot height was significantly different from the control at p ≤ 0.05, though the growth parameters were not statistically significant from the control. Nonetheless, there was marked increase over the control in nodulation and other growth parameters with the highest found in soybean plant inoculated with cassava-based Rhizobium leguminosarum.

Conclusion: This study thus showed since the carrier-based Rhizobium leguminosarum inoculants increased the physicochemical characteristics of the soil, nodulation and soybean growth; therefore such inoculant is an effective alternative to chemical fertilizers in enhancing the plant growth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Beef, Pork and Chicken Sold in Makurdi Metropolis

Adikwu Peter, E. U. Umeh, E. T. Azua, Godwin Attah Obande

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/25663

Background: The demand for meat and meat products has been on the increase because of its nutritive value. Meat and meat products have been implicated in cases of foodborne diseases in both developed and developing countries. In Nigeria, there exist a dearth of information on the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes which is a known pathogen of man and a major contaminant of meat.

Aim: To investigate the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in beef, pork and chicken, determine its distribution in markets within Makurdi, Benue State as well as its antimicrobial susceptibility to antibiotics.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted between June and November 2013, at the Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology Laboratory of Federal University of Agriculture in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.

Methodology: Two hundred and five samples of raw beef, pork and chicken were sourced from open markets in Makurdi and analyzed for the presence of Listeria monocytogenes following standard microbiological procedures. L. monocytogenes isolation and identification involved the use of Listeria Enrichment Broth (LEB), Listeria Selective Agar (LSA), haemolysis, sugar fermentation and Christie Atkins Munch Peterson (CAMP) tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility of L. monocytogenes isolates was tested against eight (8) different antibiotics, using the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Chi-squared test were used to analyze collected data.

Results: Contamination rate of L. monocytogenes was found to be 16 (7.8%) indicating that the organism is prevalent in Makurdi markets. L. monocytogenes contamination rate in pork, beef and chicken were 8 (11.1%), 6 (6.5%) and 2 (5.0%) respectively. There was however no statistically significant difference between the levels of contamination in the meat samples as well as the markets (p>0.05). All the isolates were found to be susceptible to erythromycin, gentamycin, cotrimoxazole and chloramphenicol but resistant to augmentin, amoxicillin, tetracycline and cloxacillin. L. monocytogenes contamination in the markets were 6 (37.5%), 5 (31.3%), 2 (12.5%), 2 (12.5%) and 1 (6.3%) for Wurukum, Wadata, North Bank, Modern and High level markets respectively.

Conclusion: There is a high incidence of L. monocytogenes contamination in raw beef, pork and chicken sold in Makurdi and hence, an urgent need to curb contamination of raw meat by this pathogen so as to safeguard the health of consumers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Simulating Biodegradation of Hydrocarbon Pollutants under Slow Nutrient Delivery Conditions

T. Sampson, C. J. Ogugbue, G. C. Okpokwasili

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/25956

Aim: Bacterial growth and petroleum hydrocarbon degradation kinetics was studied under controlled laboratory conditions, to determine and numerically simulate the fate of hydrocarbon pollutants.

Study Design: A 35-day study was setup to investigate crude oil degradation and bacterial growth dynamics in water, using slow-release fertilizer formulations.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, between January and June 2015.

Methodology: Crude oil degradation studies were carried out in six (6) 500 ml capacity conical flask containing 200 ml mineral salt solution and 0.25% crude oil. The setups were inoculated with suspensions of 24-h old pure cultures of bacterial isolates (Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp. and Micrococcus sp.).

Results: At the end of the study, the crude-oil concentration (S) was reduced from an initial value of 11250 ppm to 6360.6 ppm and 1471.3 ppm at weeks 5 and 10, respectively. The bacterial biomass on the other hand increased from 4.69 at the start of the experiment, to 19.36 and 34.03 (Log.10 cfu/ml) at weeks 5 and 10, respectively. Results from the numerical simulations showed that a 50% variation (reduction) on the maximum degradation rate (qmax) led to 332.32% biodiversity gain in hydrocarbon substrate (S) and a concomitant 43.11% biodiversity loss on bacterial biomass (X) after a ten-week period of simulation. Also, an 80% variation (reduction) on qmax led to a 132.93% biodiversity gain on hydrocarbon substrate and a 17.24% biodiversity loss on bacterial biomass.

Conclusion: This study revealed that lower rates of crude oil utilization leads to increased volume of petroleum hydrocarbon in the environment as well as a concomitant loss in species diversity. Nutrient amendment as well as seeding with bacteria consortium is recommended for faster rates of crude oil degradation.