Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Impact of Antiretroviral Therapy on CD4, Hemoglobin Level and Weight in HIV Infected Children (0-15 Years) Residing in Nkambe, North West Region, Cameroon

Lem Edith Abongwa, Ntonifor Helen Ngum, Nantia Akono Edouard, Nfor Germaine, Charles Fokunang

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/26088

Background: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has greatly decreased the mortality and morbidity of children living with HIV by reducing the viral load, increase CD4 count thus improving the health of HIV clients. This study seeks to assess the impact of ART on CD4+ Cell Count, weight and haemoglobin level (Hb) in children residing in Nkambe in the North West Region.

Methodology: A total of 130 HIV infected children within the age range of 5 months to 15years were recruited for the study. Blood samples were collected and used to measure CD4+ and Hb concentrations. Their weights were taken measured using an electronic balance. Hb levels were used to categorized anaemia while growth was assessed using the z scored of weight for age.

Results: Results showed that there was a significant increase (P=0.00) in the mean CD4+, Hb and weight after ART intervention. The prevalence of non-anaemia was higher 52(40.0%) after intervention compared to 30 (23.1%) at the beginning. After initiation, 30 (23.1%), 46(35.4%) and 11(8.5%) children experienced a decrease in their CD4, Hb and weight values, respectively. Of the 30 children with decreased CD4 count, 30(100.0%) were anaemic and 11 (36.7%) were underweight. More females 47(78.3%) experienced increase in CD4+ count while the male children were non anaemic 29(41.4%) and experienced an increase in weight 61(87.1%). Most children of the age group 6-10 years experienced an increase in CD4+ 26(89.7%), Hb 15(51.7%), and weight 25(86.2%) compared to the other age groups.

Conclusion: The use of ART to treat HIV-infected children is effective as it has improved the health of children. In addition this study reinforces the finding that anaemia, low CD4 and poor growth are common among children living with HIV infection.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioavailability of Plastic Contaminants and Their Effects on Plastic Bottled and Sachet Drinking Water Supplies

E. I. Atuanya, O. M. Adeghe, U. Udochukwu

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/25265

Aim: This study examined the bioavailability of plastic contaminants and their effects on plastic bottled and sachet drinking water supplies in Benin City.

Methodology:  Plastic bottled water produced by Eva water supplies was collected in triplicates and three brands of sachet drinking water were collected from different pure water distributors within Benin City metropolis. All packaged water samples were stored at room temperature for four weeks. Analyses were conducted for week one week and four.

Results: The total viable bacterial counts ranged from 1.0 x 101 – 1.9 x 102 cfu/ml for the plastic bottled water and 1.3 x 102 – 2.3 x 102 cfu/ml, total coliforms (TC), faecal coliforms (FC) and E. coli were not found in all the plastic bottled water samples tested. The bacteria isolated from bottled water samples were Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus spp. and Staphylococcus aureus while bacteria isolated from sachet water samples were Klebsiella spp., Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter spp., Micrococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The fungal isolates were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Plastic bottled water sample appeared to have slightly better physico-chemical qualities than sachet water sample. At the end of four weeks storage period. Bisphenol A (BPA) congeners were found in the plastic bottled water samples and sachet water samples respectively. The concentration of BPA in plastic bottled water ranged from 0.001 mg/l in first week to 0.139 mg/l in fourth week and had higher concentration in sachet water samples (0.001 to 3.007mg/l) with vinyl chloride and methylene chloride having the highest peaks.

Conclusion: This study has shown that the bioavailability of BPA components, reduction of microbial load and physico-chemical qualities of bottled and sachet water appeared to start manifesting at the fourth week of storage.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Probiotic Potential of Autochthonous Lactic Acid Bacteria and Microbiology of Kunu Made from Mixed Grains

H. N. Ayo-Omogie, E. I. Okorie

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/25403

Aims: This study investigated the microbiological quality of commercially-prepared kunu in comparison with those prepared under laboratory conditions using two cereals, millet and sorghum, and the in vitro probiotic potential of the autochthonous lactic acid bacteria.

Study Design: Randomized complete block design.

Place and Duration of Study: Food Processing Laboratory, Food Science and Technology Department, Federal University of Technology, Akure, and Akure metropolis of Ondo State, Nigeria in June 2015.

Methodology: Eight Kunu samples were used; 5 obtained from different commercial processors and 3 prepared in the laboratory from a combination of two cereal grains. The samples were subjected to physicochemical and microbiological analyses. Microorganisms isolated were characterized using conventional identification tests and the lactic acid bacteria were screened in vitro for their probiotic potential.

Results: Crude protein (%dry weight) of samples ranged from 33.85-58.68%; with the sample prepared from a combination of sorghum and millet having the highest content. Total ash (3.84-6.26%) and solids (7.00-9.11%) varied significantly (P=0.05) between samples. Values obtained for pH and acidity of the samples ranged from 4.14-5.01 and 1.22-3.45%. Out of 13 microbes isolated from the Kunu samples, 6 were lactic acid bacteria, 2 Bacillus spp., 3 other bacteria, 1 mould and 1 yeast. Lactic acid bacteria identified include L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, Lactobacillus jensenii, Lactobacillus cellibiosus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Leuconostoc cremoris. Lactobacillus acidophilus was predominant and showed the most significant antimicrobial inhibition against all three pathogenic strains tested (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica subsp. typhi and Shigella dysenteriae), followed by Leuconostoc mesenteroides; L. plantarum and L. jensenii varied in their activity, while L. cellibiosus showed the least activity. The isolates showed high acid tolerance, out of which L. plantarum and L. acidophilus showed the highest tolerance.

Conclusion: The selected lactic acid bacteria exhibited excellent probiotic characteristics and thus can serve as potential probiotics, hence indicating that spontaneously-fermented kunu can serve as a probiotic drink.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Resistance Development by Ciprofloxacin and Azithromycin in Shigella dysenteriae

Mohammad Sayful Islam, Md. Anwarul Haque, Ashish Kumar Sarker, Md. Ajijur Rahman, Md. Anwar Ul Islam

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/25463

Introduction: Drug resistance is a growing public health issue among the health care professionals. Due to improper use many bacterial species including the Shigella dysenteriae become resistant to the standard therapy.

Objectives: In the present study, we have shown the bacterial resistance development in the Shigella dysenteriae species against Ciprofloxacin and Azithromycin and therefore decrease in their antibiotic susceptibility together with DNA and morphological alteration by the presence of sub inhibitory concentration of antibiotics.

Methods: Disc diffusion method was applied to examine resistance of Shigella dysenteriae against ciprofloxacin and azithromycin and genomic anomalies were observed in ciprofloxacin resistant and sensitive strains by agarose gel electrophoresis.

Results: Sub culturing in the ciprofloxacin reduced the ZOI from 22 to 15 mm at their MIC on 13th passages but still the sensitivity was preserved in azithromycin (20 µg/dics) ZOI of 21 mm. In case of Azithromycin, zone reduced from 24 to 18 mm at their MIC after 13 subcultures, but it raised high to 25 mm for both ciprofloxacin (20 µg/dics). As documented of genomic changes in ciprofloxacin resistant strain (Azithromycin not included) by agarose gel electrophoresis, six different DNA bands found whereas one DNA band found in ciprofloxacin sensitive strain.

Conclusion: So it is clear that the misuse of existing antimicrobials may enable the microorganism to develop their less susceptible strain, by changing the restriction fragment length point which was appeared in the agarose gel, to that antimicrobial agent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Corneal Ulcers at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital in Nigeria - A Ten Year Review

Affiong A. Ibanga, Bassey A. Etim, Dennis G. Nkanga, Uduak E. Asana, Roseline E. Duke

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/25168

Aim: To review the pattern, trend, predisposing factors, characteristics and visual outcome of corneal ulcers at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH) between January 2003 and December 2012 with a view to providing improved quality patient management.

Study Design: Retrospective.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Ophthalmology from January 2003 to December 2012.

Methodology: A review of medical records of patients diagnosed with corneal ulcers and treated in the Ophthalmology Department of the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar.

Results: One hundred and fifty-eight (158) patients with corneal ulcer visited the Department of Ophthalmology from 2003 to 2012 but only one hundred and one (101) patient records could be retrieved. Of this number, 69(68%) were suppurative ulcer, 5(5%) Mooren’s ulcer, 10(10%) viral, 1(1%) shield ulcer while 16(16%) of the cases were indeterminate. Most patients with corneal ulcer (56, 77.78%) were classified as blind according to the World Health Organisation and at discharge 49 individuals (68.05%) remained blind. This difference was not statistically significant (p-value 0.26). Unilateral presentation was most common 66 (95.65%) during the study period. The age group mostly affected was 41- 60years.  Suppurative corneal ulcer was more common (42, 60.87%) among male patients. The majority (20, 28.99%) of the people were farmers while (13, 18.84%) were students.

Trauma (agricultural) (34, 49.28%) was the most common predisposing factor in suppurative corneal ulcer with vegetative/agricultural related materials as the most frequent causative agent. Another cause was harmful traditional medication (HTEM) (5, 7.25%).  A significant number of patients (52, 75.36%) would have received some form of treatment prior to presentation at the hospital and this included use of licensed drugs and/or HTEM (68, 98.55%). Very few patients (18, 26.09%) had microbiological assessment. Organisms isolated were aspergillus species (18, 26.09%) and Staphylococcus aureus (3, 4.35%).

Conclusion: Suppurative corneal ulcer remains a significant cause of corneal ulcer in a developing country like Nigeria with potentially devastating visual impairment and significant cost to the public health system. Massive public education programmes and strengthening of existing health systems to enhance its management including rehabilitation will go a long way in the fight against corneal blindness.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trichoderma Suppresses Pathogenic Fusarium Causing Tomato Wilt in Bangladesh

Adeeba Raihan, Momena Khandaker, Manzur-E-Mohsina Ferdous, Md. Ataur Rahman, A. F. M. Jamal Uddin, Abu Shamim Mohammad Nahiyan

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/26020

Aims: Antagonism to Fusarium root rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (ACI-FOL7 and ACI-FOL8) by Trichoderma spp. was investigated.

Study Design: The study was designed to understand antagonistic properties of locally collected Trichoderma spp. against Fusarium in vitro.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was done at the laboratories of Advanced Seed Research & Biotech Centre and the study was carried out for 2 years.

Methodology: Trichoderma spp. was collected from soil and Fusarium was collected from symptomatic tomato plant roots. Pathogenicity assay was done with Fusarium and degree of antagonism study was carried out through dual culture in vitro. Apart from morphological characterization, DNA was extracted from both fungus and confirmation of species was done through fungal specific Internal Transcribed Specer regions.

Results: The Percent Inhibition of Mycelial Growth (PIMG) recorded higher in T2 (96.7%) followed by T1 (95.5%) and T3 (95.3%). The highest PIMG was recorded in ACI-FOL7 and the lowest in ACI-FOL8 (84.4%). Among the Trichoderma species (T1, T2 and T3) significant antagonism difference were observed in ACI-FOL8, whereas ACI-FOL7 was highly suppressed by the Trichoderma species.

Conclusion: These results reveal that the native Trichoderma spp. might have biocontrol potentiality for the suppression of FOL in Bangladesh.