Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Fermentation and Extrusion on the Proximate and Organoleptic Properties of Cowpea-plantain Flour Blends

Ojokoh Anthony Okhonlaye, Fagbemi Ayomide Olubunmi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/23495

This study was conducted to investigate effects of fermentation and extrusion on the chemical and sensory properties on blends of unripe plantain flour and cowpea flours. Three ratios (100:0, 80:20 and 60:40) of unripe plantain and cowpea flour were fermented and extruded. A total of 18 organisms were isolated during fermentation of plantain: cowpea blends. They include eleven (11) bacteria, four (4) moulds and three (3) yeasts. These are Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Micrococcus luteus, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus lactis, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Rizopus stolonifer, Trichoderma viride, Candida utilis, Geotrichum candidum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) varied significantly during fermentation. The proximate composition of the raw blends, fermented, extruded and fermented- extruded samples were assessed. The crude protein and moisture content increased in the fermented, extruded and fermented- extruded samples; whereas fermentation and extrusion reduced the carbohydrate content. Fat, crude fibre and ash contents varied among all the samples. The sensory evaluation of the samples showed a good preference for fermented- extruded samples in terms of texture and aroma.

Open Access Original Research Article

Staphylococcus aureus: Nasal-carriage in Health Care Workers and In-patients with Special Reference to MRSA

Peer Maroof, Reyaz Nasir, Nargis Bali, Anjum Farhana, Maria Amin, Farhath Kanth

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/23800

Aims: To find out the nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in health care workers and in-patients in a tertiary care center. 

Study Design: Cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College and Hospital, Srinagar Kashmir. One year study (July 2013 to June 2014).

Methodology: Nasal swabs were taken from health care workers (HCWs) and in-patients and these were processed for the recovery of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates to various antibiotics was performed as per Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), guidelines and D-test done to ascertain constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (cMLSB) and inducible macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (iMLSB) phenotype. Risk factors for their carriage were also analyzed. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software version 16 and a P value of < 0.05 was taken as significant.

Results: Higher rate of isolation of S. aureus and MRSA was seen among 480 in-patients (47.1% and 32.7% respectively) compared with 256 HCWs (32.8% and 19.1% respectively). Significant resistance (P<0.05) to clindamycin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and co-trimoxazole was seen in MRSA isolates recovered from in-patients. MRSA isolates had higher cMLSB and iMLSB resistance. Years of service and level of education in HCWs were significantly associated with MRSA carriage in them.

Conclusion: Nasal-carriage of S. aureus and MRSA is common in HCWs and in-patients in our hospital. Apart from periodic screening for MRSA carriage, strict adherence to existing infection control guidelines is mandatory.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mineral Phosphate Solubilization in Burkholderia tropica Involves an Inducible PQQ-Glucose Dehydrogenase

Pamela Romina Bernabeu, Sabrina Soledad García, Gimena García Ferreyra, Verónica Inés Guidi, María Lina Galar, José Luis Boiardi, María Flavia Luna

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/24405

Aims: The objective of this work was to provide knowledgement about the mechanism and regulation of the mineral phosphate solubilization in Burkholderia tropica. To this end, the expression of the direct extracellular oxidative pathway in B. tropica was studied using different culture approaches.

Study Design: Plate assays and batch cultures in flasks and bioreactor were carried out in this study with B. tropica Mto-293 like target organism. The experiments were achieved at least three times with two repetitions per time.

Place and Duration of Study: Departamento de Química, Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Fermentaciones Industriales, UNLP, CCT-La Plata-CONICET, between November 2014-2015.

Methodology: Qualitative plate assays with different Carbon sources were carried out for the evaluation of Mineral Phosphate Solubilization phenotype. Batch cultures in flasks were carried out with different Carbon, Phosphorus and Nitrogen sources to determine quantitatively soluble phosphorus, gluconic acid and other ketoacids in the supernatants, and also PQQ-linked glucose and gluconate dehydrogenase activities in whole cells. Cultures with some of the conditions mentioned before were carried out in bioreactor specifically to control pH.

Results: This organism was able to produce significant amounts of gluconic acid via the expression of a PQQ-GDH and also showed a significant activity of GaDH. However, the direct oxidative pathway was only observed under conditions of Phosphorus starvation and/or Nitrogen fixation.

Conclusion: The Mineral Phosphate Solubilization phenotype for B. tropica can be ascribed to the expression of the direct oxidative pathway which involves the expression of an active PQQ- linked glucose dehydrogenase. Nevertheless, this pathway is not expressed constitutively in this bacterium. Environmental conditions, like low P and N availability, led to an active extracellular glucose oxidation. Therefore, mineral phosphate solubilization in B. tropica involves an inducible pyrroloquinoline quinone-linked glucose dehydrogenase. These findings may contribute to the use of this bacterium as plant growth promoting bacteria reducing the dependence on chemical fertilizer.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of IP-10 Level and HLA-DP/DQ Polymorphisms on Response to Nucleoside/ Nucleotide Analogues Treatment among Hepatitis B Egyptian Patients

Amany Abdel-Kader Ghazy, Amel Gaber El-Sheredy, Khaled Mohei Al-Din, Mohammed Khatab, Zakia Ahmed Abdel-Rahman

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/24047

Background: The efficacy of anti-viral drugs used in treatment of HBV is high but these drugs are expensive, associated with many side effects and drug resistance has evolved. Thus selection of patients with the highest probability of response is essential for clinical practice. Recent genome-wide association studies have revealed some polymorphisms in the HLA region to be associated with liver diseases, susceptibility for HBV infection, chronic HBV infection or even spontaneous HBV clearance. Additionally, IP-10 is one of the main chemokine in the recruitment of immune cells to the liver and induction of cellular immunity against viral infections, especially HBV.

Aims: This study aimed to investigate HLA-DQ.rs3920, HLA-DP.rs3077 SNP and IP-10 serum levels in relations to nucleoside/ nucleotide analogues (NAs) treatment among CHB infected Egyptian patients.

Subjects and Methods: The current study was conducted on 30 HBV infected patients (naïve, responder and non-responder) and 10 healthy volunteers, as control group. Measuring HBV DNA levels using real time PCR, IP-10 levels using ELISA and genotyping of HLA-DQ.rs3920, HLA-DP.rs3077 SNP using 5' nuclease assay were done.

Results: The expression of HLA-DP rs3077 allele A was higher among naïve and non-responder HBV patients while expression of rs3077 allele G was higher among responder HBV patients and healthy controls. While for HLA-DQ rs3920, the GG genotype was highly expressed in the different groups of HBV patients. Correlation analysis revealed association between HLA-DQ.rs3920 AA genotype and HBV-DNA in non-responder. IP-10 level was significantly increased in non-responder group compared with naïve, responder control groups, especially in patients carrying HLA-DP-rs3077 AG allele and those carrying HLA-DQ-rs3920 GG allele.

Conclusion: Genetic variations of HLA-DP.rs3077 and HLA-DQ.rs3920 could be associated with HBV risk and resistance to treatment with nucleoside/ nucleotide analogues. Moreover, IP-10 could be a promising predictor of response to treatment among HBV infected patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ecological Niche of Some Wetland Microbes

A. O. Ajayi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/24073

This study was focused on identifying and characterizing the ecological microbial communities in soil samples from Akoko communities in Akoko South West Local Government area, and Akure, the State capital, Ondo State, Nigeria. Parameters such as soil temperature, pH, and some biochemical characteristics of the microbial communities were determined. The total viable bacterial counts estimated for this purpose ranged from 58 x 107 cfu gm-1 in Borehole soil sources to 98 x 107 gm-1 in Stream sediment source. Similarly, some physiologic studies show that the temperature of the soil samples ranged from 28.0°C to 30.1°C, while the pH for borehole sample is pH6.09, stream, pH5.82 and river, pH6.25. The bacterial population of fish pond sources range from 20 x 107 cfu gm-1 to 55 x 107 cfu gm-1. Twenty three bacterial isolates were obtained from Akoko communities and this includes Bacillus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Eubacterium spp. Staphylococcus spp., Proteus spp. Acidobacteria spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Flavobacterium spp. and Pseudomonas spp. In addition to this were six (6) bacterial and two (2) fungal isolates obtained from pond soil sources in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. This is constituted of Salmonella spp. Bacillus spp., Clostridium spp., Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus feacalis and Lactobacillus spp. While the fungal isolates include Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. The study will add to our knowledge of the microbial communities from different ecological sites in Nigeria and can be helpful in environmental management and site improvements after disturbances due to human interference and industrial developments.

Open Access Original Research Article

A New Antibiotic Adjuvant Entity (Ceftriaxone + Sulbactam + Disodium Edetate): An Alternative to Carbapenems for the Management of Intensive Care Unit Infection

Sachin Verma

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/23625

Aims: Carbapenem resistant bacterial infections have limited treatment options and are associated with high mortality. Here we present a retrospective analysis of treatment and outcome for ICU patients suffering from moderate to severe urinary tract infection (UTI), lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and intra-abdominal  infections (IAI) to assess the efficacy of novel antibiotic adjuvant entity (AAE); ceftriaxone + sulbactam + disodium edetate, as an effective alternative for carbapenems in critically ill patients.

Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate efficacy of AAE in 84 patients showing sensitivity to AAE with UTI, LRTI and IAI treated at IVY hospital, Mohali, India between January 2013 to November 2014. The antibiotic therapy was initiated empirically and continued based on the results of the microbiological susceptibility testing and clinical outcome.

Results: 64 (76.19%), patients were diagnosed with single-organism infections, among which, 14 (16.16%) bacteria were resistant to meropenem and all the bacteria were susceptible to AAE. Empirical meropenem treatment was given to 25 patients, of which 18 (72%) patients achieved clinical success. 24 (75%) patients of 32 patients treated with AAE, achieved clinical success and the remaining 8 patients were cured when colistin was given with AAE. 20 (23.80%), patients were diagnosed with polymicrobial infections. Among 20 polymicrobial infectious patients, bacterial samples of 12 patients showed sensitivity towards AAE and meropenem, where as the remaining 8 (40%) samples showed intermediate susceptibility towards both cabapenem and AAE. 9 (45%) patients were cured with AAE, while the remaining 11 patients were cured with AAE and colistin combination therapy.

Conclusion: From the above study, it can be concluded that patients experience similar rates of clinical response in carbapenem susceptible cases and in some cases where patients failed to respond to carbapenem therapy but responded to AAE treatment. Hence, AAE can be used as an alternative to carbapenems in the treatment of moderate and severe infections caused by Gram negative organisms.