Open Access Short Research Article

Detection of Drug-resistant S. aureus from Poultry Samples Collected from Different Areas of Bangladesh

Mahmuda Akhter Akhi, Nantu Chandra Das, Avijit Banik, Maruf Abony, Muniara Juthi, Muhammad Ekhlas Uddin

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v29i130154

Staphylococcus aureus is gram-positive cocci that can cause foodborne illness which can be transmitted by chicken meat, both raw and undercooked; consumption of which may cause infection and/or toxicity in consumers. This current study was conducted for the detection of the prevalence of S. aureus in three types of poultry samples which included chicken meat, chicken eggs and droppings. Samples were aseptically collected from different rural and urban areas of 8 districts of Bangladesh in triplicate collection method which was conducted in the Centre for Excellence, Department of Microbiology, Primeasia University, Dhaka, Bangladesh to detect the Multi Drug-Resistant (MDR) S. aureus. Isolation was done by using 7.5% Sodium Chloride broth for enrichment and Mannitol salt agar after enriching samples in Buffer Peptone water. Antibiogram was done by using Kirby Bauer Method on Muller Hinton agar. The current study revealed 68% (17/25), 84% (21/25) and 52% (13/25) of S. aureus in chicken meat, eggs and dropping, respectively. Around 75.47% isolates (40/53) showed 100% similarity with S. aureus from the generated Dendrogram based on biochemical data. Cefixime (62.67%) showed the highest sensitivity against all of the isolates while Penicillin (86.62%) exhibited the highest resistance. Moreover, 59.62% of isolates were resistant to 5 or more drugs (Multidrug-Resistant). Poultry products such as meat and eggs were contaminated with drug-resistant S. aureus which can cause serious health effect to the consumer. The drug-resistant pathogen in droppings helps to indicate the spread of drug-resistant isolates in the environment. Therefore, proper sanitation measures should be taken to ensure the quality of the products during slaughtering, collecting eggs or disposing of poultry litter.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-virulence Activity of Three Medicinal Plants: Cassia occidentalis L., Crossopteryx febrifuga (Afzel ex G. Don) Benth. and Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam) Zep. and Timl

Vincent Ouedraogo, Eli Compaoré, Ablassé Rouamba, Moussa Compaoré, Martin Kiendrebeogo

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v29i130152

Aims: This current study was designated to assess the ability of Cassia occidentalis, Crossopteryx febrifuga and Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides traditionally used for the treatment of infectious diseases, to reduce the production of virulence factors.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Laboratory of Applied Biochemistry and Chemistry (LABIOCA), University Ouaga 1 Pr Joseph KI-ZERBO between September 2018 to January 2019.

Methodology: Methanol extracts from C. occidentalis (leaves and stem), C. febrifuga (leaves and stem) and Z. zanthoxyloides (Stem bark) were used for the investigations. The reporter strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was used to measure the impact of extracts on elastase and pyocyanin production. Antioxidant activity was measured through 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays.

Results: All extracts at the concentration of 100 µg/mL inhibited significantly the production of pyocyanin without affect negatively the growth of P. aeruginosa PAO1 with a reduction of 39%, 52% and 28% respectively for C. occidentalis, C. febrifuga and Z. zanthoxyloides. C. febrifuga showed the highest inhibition level on the production of elastase with a rate of 48%. The results demonstrated varying level of reduction of pyocyanin and elastase production in the reporter strain.  Moreover, the antioxidant polyphenols evidenced are capable to reduce the oxidative stress induced by pyocyanin.

Conclusion: The antioxidant and anti-virulence properties of these medicinal plants could justify their traditional use in the treatment of infectious diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Antifungal Volatile Organic Compounds Produced by Bacterial Endophytes against Fusarium oxysporum through GC-MS Analysis

P. Muthulakshmi, Suganya Thangavel, Parthasarathy Seethapathy

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v29i130153

Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the most important fruit crops cultivated throughout the world. Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (E.F. Smith) Snyder & Hansen (Foc) causes significant threats to banana production. Endophytic bacteria play a significant role in plant protection against soil borne plant pathogens and promote overall productivity of agricultural ecosystems. Secondary metabolites produced by several species of Bacillus have been found to possess antibacterial or antifungal activity against different isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.  These were identified by crude tests using agar gel diffusion and GC-MS analysis of the fungal crude extracts. Understanding of the metabolites produced by endophytes is also important in the context of biological control of soil-borne diseases of banana. GC-MS analysis of crude antibiotic extracts of bacterial endophytic isolates viz., GNBS3, PVBS3, NPBS4, KVBS4, BS1, revealed DL-Proline,5 Oxo  as the major compound. Having both antifungal and antibacterial activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization and Biological Activities of an Alkali Soluble Exopolysaccharide from Acetobacter

Hema Chandran, Kanika Sharma

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v29i130155

Natural polysaccharides have received much attention due to the plethora of their applications. Acetobacter sp. MRL 5A (KX082688) produced an alkali soluble exopolysaccharide (20.39 g/L) on sucrose based media during the late log and early stationary phases. The exopolysaccharide was insoluble in water with high moisture-retention ability and produced viscous solutions and gels. The exopolysaccharide contained 40.3% glucose, 34.4% galactose, 22.2% mannose and 3.1% of arabinose monomers revealed by GC. The exopolysaccharide showed emulsifying, flocculating and in-vitro antioxidant activity similar to standard exopolysaccharides like dextran and xanthan. This EPS can be of potential use in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and biomedical fields.

Open Access Review Article

Assessment of Probiotic in Aquaculture: Functional Changes and Impact on Fish Gut

M. A. A. Mamun, S. Nasren, S. S. Rathore, M. J. Sidiq, P. Dharmakar, K. V. Anjusha

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v29i130156

One of the most studied or researched sector is probiotics. The probiotic sector has generated hundreds of publications, products and also created awareness of public health benefits. Probiotics means “live microorganisms (usually bacteria) that are similar to beneficial microorganisms found in the human gut that are taken as dietary supplements or found in foods.” Such work will include, competitive exclusion, generating inhibitory components, a striving for the same nutrients and interference with quorum sensing mechanism and improved immunity. Probiotic one of the most reliable approach to combat fish disease for sustainable aquaculture. This microbial intervention approach can boost fish yield by improving feed utilization, nevertheless provide protection from pathogens by different modes of action. The use probiotic containing food has the beneficial properties has been known for centuries in human health however research in probiotics for aquaculture was a journey from last two decades. Here we are discussing the role of probiotics in aquatic animal and aquaculture environment, particularly focusing on their functional changes such as growth promoter, biocontrol and bioremediation agents, interrupt the action of pathogens by producing inhibitory substances. Finally gut morphology of rohu, Labeo ruhita were compared between probiotic and basal diet fed fishes.