Open Access Minireview Article

Recent Advances on the Role of Toll-like Receptors in Sporotrichosis – An Overview

Thais de Cássia Negrini, Rodrigo Alex Arthur, Iracilda Zeppone Carlos

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/23312

Sporotrichosis is a chronic granulomatous subcutaneous mycotic infection caused by dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii species complex which is clinically and/or epidemiologically important. The fungus is present in soil and contaminated decaying vegetation and their usual mode of infection is by traumatic inoculation into the skin and subcutaneous tissue. The immunological mechanisms involved in the prevention and control of infections caused by S. schenckii are not yet well understood but it has been discussed they should include both humoral and cellular immune responses. Immune status of the host and the inherent heterogeneity found within the same species might interfere with the expression of their virulence factors, leading to distinct clinical manifestations of disease. Interactions between innate and adaptive systems play an essential role on the immune response against microbial infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important in this process since they bind to pathogen surface antigens and initiate the immune response. In this review, we will explore and discuss recent advances in the involvement of toll-like receptors in the recognition of the etiological agent of sporotrichosis and how this process interferes with the production of mediators in response to the infection.


Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial Evaluation and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Isolates of Popular Sachet Water Brands Sold in Anambra State

O. Anagu Linda, C. Ogwaluonye Uchenna, N. Ikegbunam Moses, K. Unachukwu Chinelo, O. Esimone Charles

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/16291

Aims: To determine the microbiological quality of 5 brands of sachet water popularly consumed in Anambra state.

Study Design: To validate the level of water treatment, and determine the type of bacteria and fungi contaminants, level of contamination and presence of resistant pathogens in the sachet water brands.

Place and Duration of Study: Samples were collected based on the popularity and availability from different cities (Awka, Onitsha and Nnewi) in Anambra state. Analyses of the samples were conducted in the Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, and National Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), Nigeria. Both the sampling and analyses were done between April 2013 and May 2013.

Methodology: 5 sachets of each of the sachet water brands were purchased from strategic locations in Anambra State and they were analysed using Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC), total and fecal coliform count (TCC & FCC) and antibiotic susceptibility testing.

Results: All the brands passed the HPC test. Brand 4 failed the TCC & FCC test, as the fecal coliform, E. coli was detected. Aspergillus niger was the most frequently encountered fungi with an occurrence rate of 100%. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated bacteria with an occurrence rate of 60%. 53% of the isolated microorganisms are multi-drug resistant.

Conclusion: Sachet water sold in Anambra state is of commendable microbial quality as four of the five brands passed the TCC & FCC test. However, some organisms isolated are multi-drug resistant and they can transfer their resistance to potentially virulent microbes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Coliform Load, Supplied Water Quality and Sanitation Status of Sherpur Municipality of Bangladesh

Selina Akhter Lira, Fatema Akter, Tawhidur Rahman, Md. Shariful Islam, Rafsan Zani Tanvir, Abu Saim Al Salauddin, Mohammed Farhad Hossain, Shoaib Mahmud Shaon, Md. Masud Rana, Shahin Mahmud

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/22932

Water is indispensible for the survival of living organisms, therefore easy access of adequate and safe water is a basic need for human beings. Various health problems are caused by consumption of unsafe water. Sherpur is one of the oldest municipality of Bangladesh where about major part of the household has been suffering shortage of safe water supply; as a result sanitation status is affected negatively. The supplied water of the municipality seems to be quite good at least in terms of physicochemical water quality parameters, as most of the physicochemical water quality parameters were within the Bangladesh drinking water quality standards. The survey showed that sanitation facilities are quite good as 78% of the respondents use pit latrines, 16% use septic tank latrine and only 6% use hanging latrine. The study also showed that people are not conscious enough for the disposal of their household sewage and sludge as 46% of the respondents dispose their household sewage and sludge into municipal drainage system that cause cross-contamination, 39% dump it on the open field and only 15% buried the domestic wastes. In this regard, the municipal authority should proper monitoring the water supply system; carry out different programs and introducing different project for improving sanitation status.


Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of Antibiotic Resistance Genes among Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains Isolated from Burn Patients in Iran

Ali Hashemi, Fatemeh Fallah, Soroor Erfanimanesh, Alireza Salimi Chirani, Masoud Dadashi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/23268

Aim: In this study, we evaluated the presence of antibiotic resistance genes among P. aeruginosa strains.

Methodology: From January to September 2012, 100 isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected from burn patients. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method. Screening for Metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) productions were performed by Combination Disk Diffusion Test (CDDT). The frequency of antibiotic resistance encoding genes such as MBLs (IMP, VIM, NDM),  ESBLs (CTX-M-15), Amp-C enzyme (CMY), Ambler class A carbapenemases (KPC), Ambler class D β-lactamase (OXA-48), 16S rRNA methylases (armA, rmtB, rmtC, rmtD), Quinolone Resistance Gene (aac(6′)-Ib) and class 1 integron were performed by PCR and Sequencing techniques.

Results: 48(62.33%) of isolates were metallo-beta-lactamase producers. All MBL-producing P. aeruginosawere resistant to antibiotics; while 49% of isolates were resistant to Gentamicin. The aac(6)-Ib, CTX-M-15, int I, CMY, rmtB , rmtD and IMP-1 genes were detected in 57 (74.02%), 48 (62.3%), 48 (62.3%), 7 (9.09%), 11 (14.28%), 9 (11.68%) and 6 (7.7%) isolates respectively, whereas none of them were positive for other genes. The mortality rate due to metallo-β-lactamases-producing P. aeruginosa infection was 5(10.4%).

Conclusions: The prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes producing P. aeruginosa detected in this study is of great concern.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Clinical Samples in Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State of Nigeria

O. A. Igbalajobi, A. O. Oluyege, A. C. Oladeji, J. A. Babalola

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/22515

Aims: To investigate the prevalence of acquired multidrug resistance of P. aeruginosa among clinical samples obtained from patients attending Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Place and Duration of Study: Ekiti State Teaching Hospital from January-March 2013.

Methodology: The isolates were characterized by standard cultural and biochemical tests and they were tested for their sensitivity to different antibiotics using disk diffusion method.

Results: A total of 192 clinical samples were collected from which 42 isolates of P. aeruginosa were obtained. Antibiogram profile showed that a total of 80.95% of the isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone and ceftizoxime respectively, 76.2% to augmentin, 73.8% to ceftazidime, 71.4% to nitrofurantoin, 47.6% to ofloxacin, 45.23% to gentamicin while ciprofloxacin had the lowest resistance of 42.86. Isolates from ear swabs had the highest resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins, followed by isolates from urine while isolates from wound samples showed the lowest resistance.

Conclusion: There is a need to institute an effective antimicrobial resistance surveillance system that provides clinicians with up-to-date data on the prevalence and resistance pattern of commonly encountered pathogens like P. aeruginosa especially as nosocomial infection is concerned.

Open Access Original Research Article

Acacia senegal (L.) Wild. Associates with a Diversity of Beneficial Micro-symbionts in the Arid and Semi-arid Lands of Kenya

Jacinta M. Kimiti, Joseph M. Machua, David W. Odee

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/21766

Aims: To determine the populations and diversity of beneficial microsymbionts (rhizobia and mycorrhiza) which associates with Acacia senegal varieties at selected sites in semi-arid areas of Kenya.

Place and Duration of Study: Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI) Biotechnology Laboratories and selected semi-arid sites of Kenya, between 2009 and 2010.

Methodology: We estimated rhizobia populations, identified mycorhiza abundance and diversity and estimated plant growth of A. senegal plants grown in soils collected from the selected semi-arid sites.

Results: Rhizobia populations were generally low, below 30 cells.g-1 soil, in most of the sites but were relatively higher in areas with high forest cover such as Kimalel (559 cells.g-1 soil) and Ntumburi (104 cells.g-1soil). Seven mycorrhizae species were identified in the selected sites and all the species were represented in all selected sites except Gigaspora spp which was totally absent in Baringo and poorly represented in all sites. Glomus etunicata and Glomus intra were the most abundant mychorrhizal species, and were most abundant in Baringo, at Kimalel (76.7% and 58.3%, respectively) and Rimoi (54.7% and 44.7%, respectively). The same species were also abundant at Daaba (26.3% and 55.7%, respectively) in Isiolo. In overall, mychorhiza were most abundant in Baringo, where Kimalel had in overall highest numbers (20.2%), followed by Isiolo where Daaba had in overall highest mychorrhizal number (13.8%) and finally Kajiado, where Kajiado sub-site had higher mycorhizal number (4.8%) compared to the Namanga sub-site (3.3%). It was established that mycorrhiza survived in harsher conditions (Daaba) than rhizobia.

Conclusions: We concluded that drylands of Kenya have low rhizobia populations, implying need for rhizobia inoculation to enhance rhizobia benefits in A. senegal tree species. We also concluded that the drylands have diverse and abundant mycorrhiza species which vary across sites, and which can be utilized for enhanced mycorrhizal benefits.