Open Access Short Research Article

Efficacy of Single Dose of 500 mg Mebendazole on Geohelminths amongst School Age Children in Bafoussam, Cameroon

Vincent K. Payne, Leonelle Megwi, Michel Noubom, Cedric Yamssi, Ghislain R. Ngangnang, Mpoame Mbida, Bilong Bilong C. Felix

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/19506

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mebendazole in the treatment of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm infections amongst school age children in Bafoussam.

Methodology: In this study, 948 school age children were recruited. Stool samples were collected from all participants before treatment. Twenty-one days later, specimen bottles were redistributed only to positive cases who received treatment. Parasitological analyses were performed using the concentration method of Willis and McMaster techniques. 500 mg mebendazole was administered to those who were positive for one of the above parasites. The prevalence, parasite load, cure rates and egg reduction rates were assessed.

Results: Baseline prevalence of infections and mean parasite loads were 1.69% and 6226.9 EPG (Ascaris lumbricoides), 0.74% and 50EPG (Trichuris trichiura), and 2.85% and 64.81 EPG (Hookworm) respectively. Post treatment control showed a decrease of prevalence and mean parasite load to 0.0% and 0 EPG (A. lumbricoides), 0.63% and 42.86 EPG (T. trichiura), and 0.84% and 14.81 EPG (Hookworm) respectively. Results of the study revealed that a single dose of 500 mg mebendazole resulted in cure rates of 100%, 70.37% and 14.29% and egg reduction rates of 100%, 68.57%, and 63.16%, for ascariasis, hookworm infection and trichuriasis respectively. Mebendazole is safe and no side effect was observed.

Conclusion: The results of this study suggested that mebendazole is mostly effective against Ascaris and hookworm infection but not for Trichuris trichiura.

Open Access Original Research Article

A New Nomenclature for Cry1Ab Proteins Reflecting 3-D Structure Differences

Liu Xiaoping, Lin Yi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/22892

Cry1Ab proteins produced by the insecticidal bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis are mostly studied and applied, facing the challenge of insect resistance. The 3-D structure of the toxic core for all available 34 Cry1Ab proteins were constructed by the method of homology modeling. Based on the secondary structure pattern, four different groups were identified and named as Cry1AbⅠ, Cry1AbⅡ, Cry1AbⅢ, and Cry1AbⅣ. The three Cry1Ab proteins, Cry1Ab2, Cry1Ab7 and Cry1Ab28 were recognized as Cry1AbⅡ, Cry1AbⅢ, and Cry1AbⅣ, respectively. The other 31 Cry1Ab proteins were grouped as Cry1AbⅠ, and were further divided into three subgroups based on 3-D structural differences, Cry1AbⅠ3 (Cry1Ab33 only), Cry1AbⅠ2 (Cry1Ab31 only), and Cry1AbⅠ1 (the rest of Cry1AbⅠ). The structural differences among different Cry1Ab groups and subgroups were presented in details. The insecticidal activities of different Cry1Ab groups and subgroups were also discussed. It was worthy to speculate that the only difference in 3-D structure, residues 447-449 form β-sheet in Cry1AbⅠ vs loop in Cry1AbⅢ, resulted in Cry1AbⅠ inactive vs Cry1AbⅢ active against mosquito. The data obtained from the present in silico study provided new insights into structure-function relationship of Cry1Ab proteins.


Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Characterization of ESBL and AmpC β-Lactamases among Blood Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli

Mohamudha Parveen Rahamathulla, Belgode Narashima Harish

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/22865

The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanisms of third generation cephalosporins resistance among blood isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. A total of 549 isolates, Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=369) and Escherichia coli (n=180) were included. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern, phenotypic and genotypic detection of ESBL and AmpC production were carried out. The genetic environment surrounding blaCTX-M gene was assessed for insertion sequences. The plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) and integron carriage rate of ESBL producers were studied. The clonality was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.  Also, the plasmids bearing the ESBL, AmpC genes were studied by incompatibility typing and conjugation assay. By phenotypic tests, K. pneumoniae (79.8%) and E. coli (74.1%) were ESBL producers. Similarly, K. pneumoniae (70.5%) and E. coli (76.8%) were AmpC producers. By PCR, K. pneumoniae (68%) and E. coli (62%) carried ESBL genes. blaCTX-M- 15 was the prevalent type (98.1%). The linkage of ISEcp1 with blaCTX-M-15 gene was found in 92.5% of the blaCTX-M-15 genes. blaCMY-2 was present in 57% isolates. PFGE showed no clonal relatedness however; replicon typing revealed that ESBL genes were carried on 5 different replicon types, IncA/C being the commonest type present in this region. Also, PMQR was found in 19.3% of the ESBL producers. As high as 21.5% of class 2 integron was noted for first time from this region. A high prevalence of ESBL and AmpC genes was noticed. The clonal diversity, transferability of blaCTX-M plasmids suggest a higher incidence and wider distribution of ESBL and AmpC producing bacteria existing in the South India.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Prevalence of Vaginal Candida Colonization among Female Students in Bingham University

Maikenti James Ishaku, Adogo Lillian Yami, Koggie Amos Zamfara, Shawulu Godiya Nganjiwa

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/22843

Aim: To determine the prevalence of vaginal Candida colonization among female students in Bingham University.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in Bingham University, Auta balefi, Karu LGA, Nasarawa State between the months of March and July 2015.

Research Hypothesis: The prevalence of Candida albicans is not significantly high in the high vagina swab of most females; therefore the null hypothesis will be that the prevalence of Candida albicans is highly significant in the high vagina swab of most females.

Materials and Methods: High vagina swab of ninety six female students was collected and screened for the presence of Candida albicans. Questionnaires were issued to obtain demographic information. Inoculation was carried out on Sabourad Dextrose Agar, incubated for 48 hours at 37ºC and positive growth was checked for on Corn Meal Agar after 72 hours of incubation at 37ºC, positive growth was identified further by the use of the germ tube test using human serum and incubated between 2 to 4 hours.

Results: Ninety six females were screened and 25(26.0%) was infected. This reveals that the prevalence of Candida albicans was highly significant at X2 =1.758, df = 2 at .05, =. 05. The highest prevalence was recorded among female students within the age group of 16-20 years, (15.6%). 

Conclusion: This study reveals that candidiasis caused by C. albicans is a major health challenge among female students. Therefore the practice of good personal hygiene is highly recommended in order to prevent the spread of the infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Waterborne Diseases and Microbial Assessment of Drinking Water Quality in Ado-Ekiti and Its Environs, Southwestern, Nigeria

Busayo Mutiat Olowe, Jacob O. Oluyege, Oladiran Famurewa

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/22444

Aims: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of waterborne disease and assess the microbial quality of drinking water sources in Ado-Ekiti and its environs.

Study Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive type of study.

Place and Duration of Study: Ado-Ekiti and its environs, Ekiti State, Nigeria, between January 2014 and August 2014.

Methodology: A well structured questionnaire was used to observe the prevalence of waterborne disease in Ado-Ekiti and its environs. Questionnaires were administered to 1000 residents in the different communities from where the samples were collected. Also, 500 drinking water samples from different water sources were collected and analyzed using standard pour plate method for total viable bacterial (TVBC) and E. coli count and standard multiple fermentation test for total viable coliform count (TVCC). All data obtained in the study were analyzed using Pearson Chi-square test and Pearson correlation between variables. The significance level was set 0.05.

Results: The results revealed that prevalence of waterborne disease was found to be 27.7%. The study also showed a significant association between the independent variables except residential status and waterborne diseases (P < 0.05). The microbiological assessment of the water samples revealed that 21%, 73.6% and 47.2% did not meet the WHO standard for TVBC, TCC and E. coli count respectively. Also, a strong positive correlation was observed between TVCC and E. coli count (r = 0.885) and TVBC and TVCC (r = 0.902).

Conclusion: The detection of total coliforms and E. coli in some of the water samples from different water sources in Ado-Ekiti in large colony forming unit implies that the contaminated drinking water may be responsible for the prevalence of waterborne disease in the city. Therefore, effort should be made by appropriate authorities to conduct quality assessment of water sources from time to time to ensure that safe drinking water of good quality is available to everyone.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Bacteria Isolated from Crude Oil Polluted Fish Pond Undergoing Bioremediation

O. F. Olukunle, O. O. Oyewumi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/17800

The study was carried out to identify bacteria associated with crude oil polluted water collected from the Fish pond, Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Federal University of Technology Akure, Ondo State Nigeria. The water samples were aseptically collected into several capped bottles and transported to the laboratory, Department of Microbiology, for microbiological analyses and were analyzed at interval of two weeks using pour plate techniques. Nutrient agar (NA) was used for the isolation of bacteria. The bacterial isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical characterization using the taxonomic scheme of Bergey’s manual of Determinative Bacteriology. The bacteria obtained from the polluted water were Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Micrococcus luteus. The total bacterial counts obtained from the polluted samples ranged from 2.5x10to 6.0 x106 Cfu/mL at 0.25% and 4.0x106 to 7.0x106 Cfu/mL in 1.5% crude oil polluted water while unpolluted samples ranged from 5.2 x 104 to 5.8x104Cfu/mL. B. cereus and B. subtilis had the highest frequency of occurrence of 26.3% and 21% respectively while Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp. and Escherichia coli had the least. The bacterial species obtained in this work can be further subjected to degradation tests.