Open Access Original Research Article

Parasitological Screening of Haemo-Parasites of Small Ruminants in Karu Local Government Area of Nasarawa State, Nigeria

N. C. J. Anyanwu, C. N. Iheanacho, L. Y. Adogo

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/22358

Aim: To determine the prevalence rate and severity of haemoparasitic infections in small ruminants, using age and sex as associating factors.

Study Design: This research study was done using random sampling technique.

Place and Duration of Study: Karu Local Government Area abattoirs, Nasarawa State; Department of Biological Sciences, Bingham University, Karu, between April 2015 and July 2015.

Materials and Methods: Two hundred and sixty five (265) blood samples were examined microscopically at ×100 objective using oil immersion. Thin blood films were prepared using Giemsa’s stain, 87 sheep blood samples and 178 goat blood samples were included. Packed cell volume (PCV) was determined using capillary tubes, Hawksley haematocrit centrifuge and reader.

Results: A significantly high prevalence rate of 43.39% was recorded for haemoparasites of small ruminants (P<0.001). The genera of haemoparasites observed were Anaplasma, Babesia and Theileria, with A. marginale having the highest prevalence of 13.96% and T. hirci having the least prevalence with 1.88%. Anaplasma was most prevalent (20.7%) in goats while the most prevalent in sheep was Babesia (34.48%). Theileria had the least prevalence in both sheep (8.05%) and goats (2.81%). In goats, males had the most prevalence while females were most prevalent for sheep. Blood samples with A. marginale had the highest mean PCV of 35.89%, while B. motasi had the least mean PCV of 31.82% (P<0.05; P=0.01). However, the PCV results significantly showed neither anaemic conditions nor dehydration as they fell within 22-38% range.

Conclusion: There was high rate of haemoparasitaemia of small ruminants in both sexes, although the infections were not severe. This could have a negative effect on meat and milk production, as well as their consumers, hence, measures should be taken to prevent and provide control strategies against these haemoparasites and enhance food security to meat consumers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Incidence of Aflatoxigenic Fungi and Aflatoxins in Maize Cultivated Under Rain-Fed and Irrigation Farming Systems in Kenya

Samson Chebon, Wanjiru Wanyoike, Christine Bii, James Gathumbi, Dorington Ogoyi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/18051

Aims: This study was undertaken with the aim of establishing whether irrigation reduces aflatoxigenic fungal and aflatoxin contamination of maize samples purposefully selected from two regions practicing rain-fed and irrigation farming systems Kenya.

Place and Duration of Study: Rain-fed maize samples were obtained from Kitui and Kibwezi districts while irrigation samples were from Perkerra Irrigation scheme in Baringo County. Moisture content and fungal contamination analysis was undertaken at the Centre for Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, University of Nairobi during 2008-2010 periods. Analysis for aflatoxin contamination was done at BORA Biotech Ltd laboratories, Nairobi.

Methods: A total of 155 maize samples were obtained from two regions practicing Rain Fed Farming System and Irrigation Farming System. A purposeful sampling technique was used during the two year study. Aflatoxigenic fungal contamination involved culture on modified Potato dextrose agar supplemented with Yeast Extract Sucrose Agar containing 0.3% β-cyclodextrin. Aflatoxin quantification was done by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The findings from these two variables were compared according to the farming system. Correlation analysis between the grains moisture content, fungal and aflatoxin contamination was undertaken.

Results: Significant difference existed in the mean grains’ moisture content (M.C.) of maize samples from the two farming systems (P < 0.001).The mean moisture content was 13.2% and 12.5% for Rain Fed and Irrigation Farming System samples, respectively. A significant relationship was established in the variation and frequency of aflatoxigenic fungal species. Aspergillus flavus occurred predominantly in Rain Fed samples (X2=16.764, p=0.05). The proportion of samples with both fungal and aflatoxin contamination was comparatively higher among Rain Fed than Irrigation samples with aflatoxin contamination in 73.7%, and 59%, of the samples, respectively. However, difference in the mean fungal and aflatoxin contamination according to farming system was insignificant. A positively weak correlation existed between the total fungal load and aflatoxin levels in maize samples from both farming systems (R2=0.041 and R2= 0.004, respectively).

Conclusion: Use of irrigation, certified maize seed varieties, adequate maize grain drying and sound farming practices contribute to lower fungal and aflatoxin contamination.

Findings from this study are of great significance in creating awareness on the need to modify the pre-harvest and post-harvest farming practices in the various irrigations schemes that the Kenyan government continues investing billions of money in revamping. These practices will ensure that the maize harvests do not go into waste due to fungal and aflatoxin contamination thereby contributing to creation of national food safety and security.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological Examination of Household Kitchen Sponges from Three Communities in Ikwuano L. G. A, Umuahia, Abia State Nigeria

C. N. Obi, C. C. Ndukwu

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/19952

Sixty kitchen sponges collected from the households in three major communities in Ikwuano L.G.A, Umuariaga, Amawom and Amaoba were examined microbiologically using standard methods. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus niger were recovered from the sponges. The Total Heterotrophic Plate Count (THPC) for Umuariaga community had a mean value of 8.02 x 108 cfu/ml while Amaoba had 9.13 x 108 cfu/ml as mean value. Amawom had a mean value of 8.47 x 10cfu/ml. The Total Coliform plate count (TCPC) mean values for the three communities are 6.11 x 107cfu/ml, 6.70 x 10 cfu/ml and 6.28 x 107 cfu/ml respectively. Antibiotics susceptibility pattern of the isolates showed that Staphylococcus aureus was most sensitive to Ofloxacin (21.4 mm) but resistant to Gentamycin and Nalidixic acid while Escherichia coli was most sensitive to Amoxicillin (22.0 mm). Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed the highest sensitivity to Ofloxacin (20.6 mm) and incidentally the highest resistance (to five antibiotics). Based on the results, it was evident that kitchen sponges can be contaminated by pathogenic microorganisms which showed varied levels of susceptibility to antibiotics. Regular change of kitchen sponges and the use of washing disinfectants can reduce the level of contamination of the kitchen sponges and the associated infections.


Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Study and Antibacterial Properties of the Leaf Extracts of Swartzia madagascariensis Desv (Fabaceae)

Muhammad Hassan Sani; Garba Ibrahim; Umar Habibu Danmalam, Zakariya Ali Muhammad, Muhammad Kachallah

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/22372

This study evaluated the phytochemical and antibacterial properties of the hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol leaf extracts of Swartzia madagascariensis Desv (Fabaceae). Ethno-medicinally, the leaves are used in the treatment of cutaneous wounds, diarrhoea, malnutrition, inflammations and scabies among others. The phytochemical screening using standard methods, revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, saponins, triterpenes and steroids. The antibacterial activities of extracts (2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/ml) of S. madagascariensis were tested against three Gram-positive—Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Corynebacterium ulcerans; one Gram-negative—Escherichia coli pathogens. The activity was determined using well diffusion method with zones of inhibition ranges of 17-18 mm for hexane, 24-27 mm for ethyl acetate and 21-22 mm for ethanol extracts. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the extracts was determined using 0.5 scale Mc-farland’s turbidity standard. The extracts at 20 mg/ml (hexane), 5-10 mg/ml (ethyl acetate) and10 mg/ml (ethanol) inhibited the growth of the isolates. It also gives Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations ranging from 40 mg/ml (hexane extract), 20 mg/ml (ethyl acetate) and 40 mg/ml (ethanol extract). Zone of inhibitions of extracts were compared to that of standard antibacterial drug, ciprofloxacin (32-37 mm). The results from this study support the traditional use of the leaves of S. madagascariensis in the treatment of bacterial infections.


Open Access Original Research Article

Lactic Acid Bacteria Composition of Type II Sourdough Produced in Nigeria

Michael Macvren Dashen, Saleh Ado, Joseph Ameh, Clement Whong

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/16631

Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the lactic acid bacteria composition of type II sourdough produced in Nigerian from different brands of wheat flour.

Study Design: Sourdoughs were produced by spontaneous fermentation at 31°C and 40°C for five days from three popular brands of Nigerian wheat flour. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated and identified from the sourdoughs using API 50 CH.

Place and Duration of Study: The work was carried out at the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria between April 2014 to July, 2014.

Methodology: Doughs were prepared from three popular brands of wheat flour and allowed to ferment spontaneously at 31°C and 40°C for five days. Lactic acid bacteria counts, fungal counts and aerobic plate counts were carried out. The lactic acid bacteria were identified using the API 50 CH. Data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using ANOVA. Significant differences among samples were evaluated by Duncan multiple – range test.

Results: The results obtained showed that the mean lactic acid bacteria counts were 6.462±0.74, 6.471±0.62 and 6.826±0.68 log CFU/g after five days of fermentation at 31°C while the counts were 6.878±0.99, 6.728±0.95 and 7.051±1.04 log CFU/g after five days of fermentation at 40°C. Lactobacillus plantarum (34%), Lactobacillus brevis (29%), Lactobacillus pentosus (18%), Pediococcus pentocaseus (9%), Lactobacillus buchneri (3%), Lactobacillus collinoides (3%), Lactobacillus fermentum (3%) and Pediococcus acidilactici (3%) were isolated and identified.

Conclusion: There is no known published data on lactic acid bacteria composition of type II sourdough produced in Nigeria; findings of this work will assist to bridge this information gap. Knowledge of the lactic acid bacteria of the sourdough will help in the development of starter cultures for improvement of the nutritional and organoleptic qualities and shelflife of a wide variety of Nigerian baked products.

Open Access Review Article

Recent Advances in Human Papillomavirus Detection and Genotyping

El Aliani Aissam, Hassan Jaddi, My Mustapha Ennaji, Mohammed E. L. Mzibri

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/22176

Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second-most common cancer and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in developing countries. Epidemiological and biological studies have identified Human papillomavirus (HPV) as etiological agent for cervical cancer. Currently, it’s widely accepted that 40 among 200 genotypes of HPV considered as high risk are implicated in the development of other human cancers. The diagnosis of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions is mainly based on cytological screening that have largely contributed to reduce the prevalence of cervical cancer in both developed and developing countries. Although this screening has decreased the incidence of cervical cancer, cytological techniques lack sensitivity and HPV-related cervical disease, including premalignant and malignant lesions, continues to be a major burden on health-care systems. The current trend in cervical cancer screening is to improve the sensitivity of screening with new methods and to propose new algorithms for diagnostic and early therapeutic decisions. Recent achievement in molecular approaches have emerged in clinical practices, are characterized by high sensitivity, specificity and the short time required to perform the procedure, which explain the great interest given to these techniques for HPV testing. These techniques are widely used for HPV detection and/or genotyping, they are based on signal amplification methods (hybridization techniques in liquid phase) or target amplification methods (gene amplification by PCR). This review paper was edited to summarize the main molecular techniques used in HPV testing and recent advances for HPV detection and genotyping.