Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antibacterial Activity of the Extracts of Peperomia pellucida (L)

O. O. Idris, B. P. Olatunji, P. Madufor

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/21421

Background: Peperomia pellucida is an economic plant grown in West Africa.

Aim: We investigated the phytochemical and antimicrobial activity of N-hexane, Ethyl acetate, and Ethanol extract of Peperomia pellucida whole plant that grows around Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. 

Methods: Preliminary screening was conducted on the powdered sample for the presence of secondary metabolites. 150 g of the dried plant powdered sample was soaked with 750ml of solvents for 72 hours. The filtrates concentrated on water bath (40ºC) were tested against strains of some bacteria isolates including Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 34089, Salmonella typhi ATCC 22648, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa,  using the agar well diffusion method.

Results: Phytochemical screening of this plant showed the presence of antraquinone, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and glycosides. All extracts exhibited antimicrobial activities with the methanol extract exhibiting the least potency whilst the N-hexane extract exhibited the strongest potency with zone of inhibition 10-12 mm at concentration of 25 µg/ml. The MIC (200 mg/ml) of the plant extracts was observed to be effective against the strains of organisms.

Conclusion: The antimicrobial properties against the tested strains indicated the potential usefulness of P. pellucida in the treatment of various pathogenic diseases which in future can be developed as a potential antimicrobial agent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter Species Isolated from Backyard Chickens in Grenada, West Indies

Ravindra Sharma, Keshaw Tiwari, Vanessa Mathew Belmar, Sunil Kumar, Sagar M. Goyal, Victor A. Amadi, Natalie Watson, Harry Hariharan

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/21741

Aim: This study was carried out to assess the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in free range chickens in Grenada, West Indies and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates.

Study Design: Cloacal swabs were collected from 315 free range chickens from randomly selected households from all six parishes of Grenada between June and July 2014. Cloacal swabs were cultured for Campylobacter in the Pathobiology Diagnostic Laboratory, School of Veterinary medicine, St. Georges University Grenada. Isolates were further tested through PCR for speciation.

Methodology: Standard culture methods for isolation of Campylobacter spp were used. Isolates were characterized by conventional phenotypic tests and confirmed by PCR using species specific primers. The 16s rRNA gene for Campylobacter spp.; the map A gene for C. jejuni and the ceuE gene for C. coli were selected for PCR. Isolates were tested through E-test for their antimicrobial susceptibility using Ampicillin, Ciprofloxacin, Chloramphenicol, Erythromycin, Gentamicin, Metronidazole and Tetracycline.

Results: A total of 158 isolates (50.2%) were obtained by culture. PCR on 93 isolates identified 33 isolates as C. jejuni, 6 as C. coli and 54 as mixed infection with C. jejuni and C. coli. None of the isolates was resistant to chloramphenicol and erythromycin; susceptibility to other antimicrobials varied among isolates. Multidrug resistance was high in C. coli (33.3%), followed by mixed infection isolates (22.2%) and C. jejuni (12.0%).

Conclusion: Results of the study show that approximately 50% of backyard chickens in Grenada harbor Campylobacter spp. These backyard chickens pose a great risk for humans as hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) is not observed during the slaughter and processing of these chickens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological and Physico-chemical Analysis of Borehole Water in Auta Balefi Community, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

L. Y. Adogo, M. A. Ajiji, N. C. J. Anyanwu, B. Ajide

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/22360

Aim: To determine the bacteriological and physico-chemical qualities of borehole water in Auta Balefi, community.

Place and Duration of Study: Auta Balefi, Community, Karu LGA, Nasarawa State; Department of Biological Sciences, Bingham University, Karu, between April 2015 and June 2015.

Materials and Methods: Five water samples from different sources (boreholes) was collected randomly within the community. The total bacterial count was determined by pour plate technique.  Total coliform count was determined using 3-3-3 regimen (3-tube assay). Identifications of isolates was carried out using standard methods.

Results: Six genera of bacteria which include Escherichia spp, Klebsiella spp, Staphylococcus spp, Salmonella spp, Pseudomonas spp and Proteus spp was isolated from the water samples. Total Heterotrophic bacterial count in the borehole water sampled ranged from 1.03 x 10-2 cfu/ml to 2.01 x 10-2cfu/ml, respectively. The total coliform count of the borehole water analyzed ranged from 19 Most Probable Number (MPN) index of coliform/100 ml to 26 MPN index of coliform/100 ml. The fecal coliform count of the water analyzed ranged from 2x102 cfu/ml to 6x102 cfu/ml. Important physico-chemical parameters such as Color, Salinity, Turbidity, Nitrate concentration, Total hardness, Chloride and Calcium levels were within the World Health Organization (WHO) standard for potable water though some parameters such as TDS and pH had values which were beyond these standards.

Conclusion: This study revealed that the borehole water analyzed is not safe for consumption. However, improvisation of safe drinking water by individuals will reduce the spread of the water borne diseases and this can be achieved either by boiling or chlorination. The addition of sodium aluminate (alum), or ‘water guard’ which contains 1.0% of sodium hypochlorate to water will reduce water contaminants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-inflammatory and Anti-infective Properties of Ethanol Leaf and Root Extracts of Baphia nitida

Christian Agyare, Somto Oguejiofor, Emelia Oppong Bekoe, Louis Adu-Amoah, Yaw Duah Boakye

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/22459

Baphia nitida Lodd. (Family Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) is a tropical plant used in African folkloric medicine for the treatment of infections and inflammatory conditions. This study therefore seeks to investigate the biological activities including antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of 70% v/v ethanol leaf and root extracts of B. nitida.

The phytochemical constituents of the ethanol root and leaf extracts of B. nitida was determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis and in vitro phytochemical tests, while their anti-microbial activities were determined using the agar diffusion and micro-dilution methods. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of this extract was also investigated by the DPPH radical scavenging methods and invivo carrageenan-induced paw oedema model of inflammation, respectively.

The antioxidant properties of the extracts as determined by the DPPH free radical scavenging assay gave IC50 values for reference

Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of Chronobacter sakazakii and other Enteropathogenic Bacteria from Selected Brands of Commercial Powdered Foods in Nigeria

Michael Oluyemi Babalola, Olubukola Adebayo

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/17912

Aim: Food borne infections continue to debilitate human populations. Powdered Infant foods, cereal based, and malt based foods have been less investigated for the presence of Chronobacter sakazakii and other enteropathogenic bacteria as agents of diarrhea and Necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates and infants. This study was aimed at detecting the presence of multidrug resistant strains of Chronobacter sakazakii and other enteropathogenic bacteria from three brands of commercial powdered foods in Nigeria.

Methods: A total number of 45 samples comprising 15 units each, of NAN 2, Horlicks and Custard powder were purchased randomly from different retail outlets in Lagos, Ekiti and Ondo states Nigeria. The method of the US Food and Drug Administration was adopted in the bacteriological analysis of the samples, and susceptibility of the detected bacteria to 16 antibiotics was determined using the standard methods of CLSI on Mueller-Hinton Agar.

Results: A total number of 57 bacteria species were isolated from all the 45 powdered food samples. Twenty (20) isolates from the PIF were predominantly C. sakazakii 9/20 (45%), S. enterica 4/20 (20%), E. aerogenes 1/20 (5%), S. rubidae 1/20 (5%), K. oxytoca 2/20 (10%), K. pneumoniae 1/20 (5%) and Erw. ananas2/20 (10%).  Eight (8) isolates were obtained from malt-based  Horlicks, comprising C. sakazakii 3/8 (37.5%), B. licheniformis 2/8 (25%) and  Erw. ananas 3/8 (37.5%).Twenty nine (29) isolates were detected in the cereal-based custard, comprising C. sakazakii 11/29 (38%), Erw. ananas 8/29 (27.6%), B. licheniformis 5/29 (17.2%), and S. enterica 2/29 (6.9%), while  Erw. persicinus, E. aerogenes and  B. cereus were 1/29 (3.4%) respectively. Of all the 57 bacteria isolates, 8 (14%) were Gram positives while 49 (86%) were Gram negatives. All the Gram negative bacteria from the PIF were resistant to Ampicillin but susceptible to Gentamycin and Nalidixic acid, while all the isolates from Horlicks and custard powder were resistant to Ampicillin, Nalidixic acid, Nitrofurantoin and Streptomycin.

Conclusion: Multidrug resistant Chronobacter sakazakii, and other enteropathogenic bacteria are prevalent in commercial cereal based food (custard powder), malt based foods (Horlicks) as well as Powdered Infant Milk Formula (NAN2) in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Patients Infected with Helicobacter pylori are Susceptible to Idiopathic Chronic Uritcaria

Sami F. Abdalla, Zienab Fageery, Bakri Alagraa

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/17664

Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria (CIU) manifested by weal eruptions of unknown cause lasting for more than six  weeks induced by histamine hyper-secretion  due to immunological and non-immunological factors. Hernando-Harder et al. [1] as many other studies supported the possibility of Helicobacter pyloriautoantibodies induction that may cross react with mast cell receptors or increases sensitivity of skin vessels to histamine. Throughout eight months 73 patients referred to Khartoum Dermatology Hospital and 73 normal matched subjects were enrolled to detect possibility of association between H. pylori and chronic urticaria. The stool tests for H. pylori antigen revealed that 6 patients and 2 normal subjects were infected thus there was no wide discrepancy between the two groups but 46.6% of patients showed GIT symptoms. Eradication regimen received by the six CIU patients for three weeks then symptoms reexamined for one, three, and six weeks intervals. The percentage of failure was seen in 33.30% and no patient completely cured. This indicates that there is no association between H. pylori infection and development of CIU but GIT upsets may raise the possibility of other microbes association.