Open Access Original Research Article

Occurrence of Aflatoxigenic Fungi in Smoke-dried Fish Sold in Jos Metropolis

M. O. Job, S. E. Agina, H. S. Dapiya

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/21465

This research was conducted to determine the occurrence of aflatoxigenic fungi in smoke-dried fish at marketing centers in the Jos metropolis. Total fungal load per sample was derived from plate counts and expressed as colony-forming units per gram of sample (cfu/g). In-vitro aflatoxigenicity of mould isolates was evaluated on coconut extract agar by exposing reverse side of plates to 365 nm ultra violet light. The results show that mean fungal load of smoke-dried fish ranged between 2.00x103±8.49x102 to 3.09x104±8.85x103cfu/g. Generally, the processed fish was contaminated with combinations of eight fungal genera: Fusarium, Aspergillus, Saccharomyces, Penicillium, Mucor, Rhodotorula, Schizosaccharomyce, Acremonium and Rhizopus. Strains of Penicillium digitatum, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were the most predominant at 61.67%, 30.00% and 26.67% respectively. Comparatively, the assessment shows that smoke-dried fish from Terminus were the most contaminated (P < 0.05) followed by samples from Chobe and Katako markets. Out of 164 fungal isolates, only strains of Aspergillus flavus 5(8.33%) from Terminus market exhibited aflatoxin producing potential. In view of sea food safety and quality, the presence of toxigenic fungi on smoke-dried fish is of health significance and increase the risk of mycotoxin poison. The findings of this study call for stiff regulation and monitoring of smoke-dried fish in our open markets.


Open Access Original Research Article

Gram-Negative Bacteria from Pharynx and Nasal Cavity of Domestic Goats in Grenada, and Resistance of Mannheimia haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi to Tulathromycin and Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole

Harry Hariharan, Albert Rovira, Vanessa Matthew-Belmar, Traci Vogler, Graeme Stratton, Ravindra N. Sharma

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/21925

Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the occurrence of bacterial respiratory pathogens, particularly members of the family Pasteurellaceae in healthy domestic goats in Grenada, and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of the predominant species.

Study Design: Nasal and pharyngeal swabs from 161 adult goats from the six parishes of Grenada were collected during  a ten month period from May 2012 to March 2013 and examined for potential bacterial respiratory pathogens.

Methodology: Bacteria resembling Pasteurellaceae, and Corynebacterium spp. were presumptively identified by phenotypic characteristics. For definitive identification to species level, DNA from the isolates were subjected to 16s ribosomal RNA sequencing. The closest matches to sequences in GenBank, and their percentage identity were the criteria used to determine the bacterial species. The major members of Pasteurellaceae were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility to 11 antibiotics using the disk diffusion method.

Results: Of a total of 98 Gram-negative isolates, 41% were Mannheimia haemolytica, followed by Bibersteinia trehalosi (37%), Mannheimia glucosida (9%), and the remainder comprising of 11 different species, including five species of Moraxella. Of the three Gram-positive isolates, two were Rhodococcus equi, and one was Trueperella pyogenes. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests on a total of 73 isolates of M. haemolytica and B. trehalosi showed that 18% isolates were resistant to tulathromycin, a recently introduced drug for use in goats. Moreover, 77% of isolates were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, another drug with application in goats. Tulathromycin resistance was accompanied by resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in 12 of the 13 isolates.  Resistance to these two drugs is not in accordance with published data, and need detailed further investigation. Resistance to ceftiofur, a drug used for pneumonic pasteurellosis was minimal (one isolate only), and none of the isolates were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid or enrofloxacin.

Conclusion: In conclusion, our study, first of its kind in the Caribbean, showed that M. haemolytica and B. trehalosi, two major respiratory pathogens of ruminants colonize nasal cavity and pharynx of healthy goats in Grenada. Both organisms showed uncommon high resistance to tulathromycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, the reasons for which are not understood, and need further investigation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological Quality of Laboratories Works Stations: Impact of a System of Saturated Dry Spray Steam

H. Ahouandjnou, F. Baba-Moussa, V. Dougnon, J. Bonou, Z. Adeoti, F. Toukourou, L. Baba-Moussa

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/20228

Hygiene and sanitation in laboratories are some important focus for the well-being of scientists and workers. Due to the lack of these notions, a new sanitation system named Polti Sani System has been tested to overcome the limitations of traditional methods.

For this work, some American Type Culture Collection and Institute Pasteur of Strasbourg reference strains have been used. The biocides activities of the Sani System were assessed by the count of the total aerobic mesophilic bacteria in the working environment before and after disinfection. The Adenosine Triphosphate was also quantified. After a time contact of 30 seconds, Sani System reduced more than five logarithmic levels, the bacterial rate tested. The log reduction achieved with the fungi in the same conditions were greater than four logarithmic levels. The antimicrobial activity was observed both in the environment and on inert supports made of glasses, Plexiglas or tiles with an average reduction rate of 99.13%. This study showed that the Sani System associated with ATP-metry can be successfully used to quickly check the hygiene standards on surfaces or lab environment. It is a real challenge in terms of quality, efficiency and safety for the laboratories.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening, Identification and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Bacteriocin-producing Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Selected Traditionally Fermented Products

I. A. Adesina, A. O. Ojokoh, D. J. Arotupin

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/21427

Aims: To isolate and identify bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria from traditionally fermented products and determine their antibiotic susceptibility pattern.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria between October, 2012 – March, 2013.

Methodology: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates from samples of traditionally fermented products (“burukutu”, “pito”, yoghurt, “wara” and “iru”) were screened for bacteriocin production. Bacteriocin screening was performed both by the agar spot test and well diffusion assay. Four reference strains (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853) were used as indicator strains to check sensitivity to the antimicrobial substances produced by the LAB isolates. Carbohydrate fermentation profiles of selected bacteriocin-producing LAB strains were determined using API 50CH kits to identify them up to the species level. Antibiogram of LAB isolates were determined by antibiotic sensitivity discs.

Results: A total of sixty-three (63) lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains obtained from the fermented products were screened for bacteriocin production. Thirty-seven isolates (59%) of these LAB strains showed antimicrobial activity against two or more of the reference varieties used as indicator strains (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853). After excluding inhibition due to organic acids and hydrogen peroxide from the cell-free culture supernatants of these 37 LAB isolates, only 6 (16%) of the 37 selected LAB isolates (10% of the 63 initial LAB isolates) continued to show antimicrobial activity against three of the reference strains. The inhibitory effects of these six (6) LAB strains showed the presence of bacteriocins, hence potent bacteriocin producers. The selected bacteriocin-producing LAB strains (BE1, BO2, IO1, PO4, PO9 and YO7) were identified as Lactobacillus cellobiosusLactobacillus brevisPediococcus pentosaceusLactobacillus rhamnosusTetragenococcus halophilus, and Lactobacillus fermentum respectively. All the bacteriocin-producing LAB isolates were susceptible to erythromycin and zinnacef but were resistant to streptomycin and pefloxacin.

Conclusion: These results reveal six LAB isolates from traditional fermented products that were capable of producing bacteriocins which could have a potential for food applications as biopreservatives.

Open Access Original Research Article

Oral Candidiasis: Complication of Concomitant Chemo-radiotherapy in Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Sadia Minhas, Muhammad Kashif, Wasif Altaf, A. H. Nagi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/21921

Objectives: To investigate oral candidiasis clinically and cytologically in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma cancer before and at the end of concomitant chemo-radiation therapy and to explore its association with clinical oral symptoms and days of Chemo-radiation. Secondary objective was to describe the oral candidiasis incidence in Pakistani patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma undergoing chemo-radiotherapy.

Subjects and Methods: 85 patients who received concomitant chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) first time were included in this study. Patients were examined for signs and symptoms of oral candidiasis, mucositis and xerostomia before and at the end of CCRT. Oral scrapings were obtained from contralateral normal buccal mucosa and peri-tumoural area on the selected days i.e. before and at the end of CCRT. Cytological examination was carried out using H&E stain and GMS stain. Mucositis, oral hygiene and xerostomia were assessed by self-reporting questionnaires and also subjectively. Associations among oral candidiasis and these symptoms were evaluated. Age, gender and addictive habits of patients were recorded in a specially designed proforma.

Results: The incidence of oral candidiasis, mucositis and xerostomia were significantly higher at the end of CCRT in these patients. Cytological examination reveals an increase in incidence of fungal colonization at the end of therapy smears on both sites (contralateral normal buccal mucosa and peri tumoural area). Significant association was observed at the end of CCRT between candidiasis and radiotherapy dosage (p = 0.000), oral hygiene and candidiasis (p = 0.012) (p =0.001), addictive habits of patients and candidiasis (p = 0.012), xerostomia and candidiasis (p = 0.000). Similarly significant association was observed among days of CCRT and fungal colonization on both sites of smears i.e. contralateral normal buccal mucosa and peri- tumoural area (p = 0.000).

Conclusion: Oral squamous cell carcinoma patients who have received concomitant chmeo-radiotherapy had a high incidence of fungal colonization in the oral cavity. As a result, prophylaxis to decrease candidalinfection in these patients is requisite. This might improve the quality of life of patients who have be given chemo- radiation treatment for malignant oral cancers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological Quality of Cows' Milk Butter Processed in Khartoum State, Sudan

Saniya Saleem Jabir Ahmed, Mohamed Osman Mohamed Abdalla, Siham Abdalla Rahamtalla

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/17960

Aims: This investigation was carried out to study the microbiological quality of butter produced in Khartoum State, Sudan.

Methodology: Butter was manufactured traditionally by farmers in Khartoum north (T1) and Omdurman (T2), in addition to butter manufactured commercially in a dairy plant (T3) and butter manufactured by researchers in the laboratory (T4).  Microbiological characteristics were evaluated at 1, 15, 30, 45 and 60- day intervals for samples stored at 5.0±1.0°C, and at 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28- day intervals for samples stored at 25±2.0°C.  

Results: The results showed that total viable bacteria count (TVBC) significantly increased from the beginning of storage period to the end in butter of all treatments, with the increase being remarkable for samples stored at 25°C. Coliform bacteria increased to a lesser extent compared to TVBC, with the increase being crucial in samples stored at 25°C. The storage temperature significantly affected the counts of yeasts and moulds, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, proteolytic and lipolytic bacteria, however, the difference in the count of lipolytic bacteria between the two temperatures was not of importance.

Conclusion: In this study, the microbiological quality of butter is mainly affected by the method of butter manufacture and storage conditions during the storage period.