Open Access Short communication

Microbiological Quality of Machine Sealed Sachet Water Produced and Sold in the Tamale Metropolis, Ghana

Alhassan Wuni, L. A. Adetunde

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/15721

The microbiological quality of machine sealed sachet water produced and sold in the Tamale Metropolis, Northern Region of Ghana was investigated. Eighteen (18) different sachet water brands produced and sold in Tamale were collected for bacteriological analysis and each sample was represented by coded letters. A total of 72 samples of the eighteen different brands were collected from the producers and sellers within the Metropolis and analyzed for bacteriological qualities. Total coliform bacteria counts, Faecal coliform bacteria counts and total heterotrophic bacteria counts of the samples were determined using Multiple Tube Fermentation technique and Plate Counts methods. Based on the WHO and Ghana Standard Authority (GSA) standards for drinking water, all the eighteen (18) different sachet water had no Faecal Coliform counts. Most sachet water samples had elevated total coliform bacteria counts ranging from <1.8 to 14 mpn / 100 ml. Sachet water brands DL, SN, and AM samples had total coliform counts of 11 mpn / 100 ml; MA and BT had total coliform counts of 14 mpn/100 ml; IM and OL had 9.3 mpn/100 ml; RK, VL and SG had 6.8 mpn / 100 ml; FC, LA and ZZ had 4.5 mpn / 100 ml; SB had 7.8 mpn / 100 ml; IK had 4 mpn / 100 ml; AC had 2 mpn / 100 ml total coliform counts while ET and JL had  total coliform counts of <1.8 mpn / 100 ml. Based on total coliform bacteria counts, 11.11% of the samples were excellent, 5.56% were satisfactory, 55.56% were suspicious and 27.76% were unsatisfactory. None of the sampled brands of sachet water produced and sold in the Tamale Metropolis were contaminated with faecal coliform bacteria, thus could not serve as route of transmission of water borne diseases. Total Heterotrophic bacteria counts were also elevated in all samples ranging from 6 x 101 to 44 x 101 cfu/ml.

Open Access Minireview Article

Molecular Biology Methods to Assess Microbiological Hazard Concerning Objects of Cultural Heritage

Tomasz Lech

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/19535

Microorganisms present in the environment pose a considerable hazard to historical objects and works of art. They are capable of settling on objects, and due to their ability to produce various enzymes, they can actively destroy these special objects, the poor preservation of which additionally facilitates degradation. In order to prevent biodeterioration of cultural heritage objects it is essential to maintain adequate physical conditions in the environment in which they are stored. It is also significant to monitor their microbiological condition both for quantity and diversity of microorganisms. Methods based on molecular biology enable a rapid and more accurate analysis of the microbiological condition in such environments thus allowing early intervention of a conservator. Nevertheless, the conventional microbiological methods must not be depreciated, but rather supplemented with novel solutions. The aim of this paper is to present the application of advanced methods of molecular biology in combination with methods of conventional microbiology in a quantitative and qualitative analysis of microorganisms present on the surfaces of historical objects and in environments in which they are stored.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pathogenesis of the Influenza Virus in Diabetes Model Mice

Morihiro Ito, Hiromichi Kubota, Tamaki Takeuchi, Shanlou Qiao, Masato Tsurudome, Hideki Tsumura, Akio Matsuda, Yasuhiko Ito

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/18799

When diabetes model mice and control mice were intranasally infected with the influenza virus (1 LD50), a significant higher mortality rate was observed in the diabetes model. The mortality rate became 100% at 10 days post infection. Furthermore, histopathological examination of lung tissue revealed a more enhanced inflammatory response in the diabetes model mice infected with the influenza virus. On the contrary, viral clearance from the lungs was suppressed in the diabetes model mice. The recruitment of macrophages was observed in the case of virus-infected control mice at 1 and 3 days post infection. Intriguingly, the number of macrophage in the lungs was not changed through the period of observation, thus the recruitment of macrophages in the lungs was not found in the virus-infected diabetes model mice.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Review of CD4 Positive T Lymphocytes Counts among HIV Positive Patients Attending a Nigerian Teaching Hospital

S. I. Nwadioha, M. S. Odimayo, G. T. A. Jombo, E. O. Nwokedi Prince, M. Atef

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/19294

Aims and Objectives:  To determine the baseline CD4 positive T lymphocytes count of HIV/AIDS treatment naïve adults clients presenting for the first time treatment in Benue State University Teaching Hospital.

Subjects and Methods: A total of 700 subjects age between 18 years to 70 years, were recruited for the study, comprising 600 HIV sero-positive patients and 100 healthy controls in Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi from 2013 to 2014. The CD4 counts of the subjects were evaluated using a Partec flow cytometer.

Results: CD4 count of 200-299 cells/μl peaked with 25% (n=150/600) [control; 0% (n= 0/100)]. The study also showed that 44% (266/600) of HIV subjects had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome as defined by low CD4 counts below 200 cells/μl. Seventy-five per cent (n=451/600) of our patients would require to be placed on antiretroviral therapy with CD4 count below 350 cells/μl. At CD4 350 baseline criterion, age group 20-29 years had the highest demand 35% (160/451) for ARV followed by age groups 30-39 and 40-49 years  with 28% (128/451) and  22% (98/451) respectively.

Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among the young active productive age group as defined by CD4 counts below 200 cells/μl. The strict adopting of the ART WHO 2010 scale- up criteria doubles the number of the HIV clients that would qualify for ART with its attendant health benefits on the long run.

Open Access Original Research Article

Survey of the Quality Physical, Chemical and Bacteriological of the Underground Waters of the Continental Terminal of the Township of Abomey-Calavi (Benin)

Sagnon Parfait Hounsinou, Daouda Mama, Dominique Sohounhloue

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/17159

Many campaigns of withdrawal of the underground waters have been done during the year 2013 to the level of the drillings situated in the township of Abomey-Calavi for control their quality. These withdrawals were the object of analysis according to the techniques of assessment of water quality described by Rodier (1978) and to the recommendations of the world organization of health (WHO). The physical and chemical analysis showed that the concentrations of the 98.7% of the studied drillings are superior to the norms recommended by the WHO (1994) and by Benin (2011). The studied drillings present without exception a bacteriological pollution. The very elevated microbial germ presence in water could constitute a sanitary risk importing for the inhabitants who consume the water of these drilling.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Susceptibilities and Plasmid Profile of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase- producing Escherichia coli from Community Acquired Urinary Tract Infection at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

Abimbola Temitayo O. Awopeju, Lucy Eberechukwu Yaguo Ide, Orikomaba K. Obunge

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/19045

Background: Globally, the emergence of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli has been noted in community acquired strains as against the hospital acquired origin. This study was designed to assess antibiotic susceptibilities and plasmid profile of extended spectrum beta lactamase- producing Escherichia coli from community acquired urinary tract infection at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital.

Methods: Demographic data from patients suspected of having community acquired UTI were obtained with the aid of questionnaires. Urine samples were cultured on MacConkay agar and Blood agar plates. Gram negative isolates were identified as Escherichia coli using the MicrobactTM 12A GNB identification system. Antibiotic susceptibility was done following standard technique in the CLSI guideline. Plasmid extraction of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli were done followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Isolates harboring plasmids were subjected to plasmid curing procedure of Tomoeda et al. and antibiotic susceptibility pattern repeated. Plasmid extraction and gel electrophoresis were also repeated on the cured isolates. Data analysis was done using Epi-info statistical software version 3.5.2.

Results: Resistance of the isolates to the first line drugs in use in the hospital was high; as 90.3% of the total 392 isolates were resistant to co-trimoxazole. Nitrofurantoin (82.1%); ciprofloxacin (73.5%); amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (55.1%), cefotaxime (73.5%) and ofloxacin (65.8%). ESBL production was detected in 40.3% (50) while 78% of the ESBL producers were found to possess plasmids ranging from one to three with molecular weight ranging from 1.0 to 15.2 kilobase pairs. Two percent of the ESBL positive was resistant to meropenem, a carbapenem antibiotic.

Conclusions: There was a high level of resistance to the first line drugs. High molecular weight plasmids were detected and were responsible for conferring resistance to other group of antibiotics.