Open Access Short Research Article

Post Vaccination Immune Response Potentiation against Blue Tongue Vaccination with Stresomix in Deccani lambs and Sheep

D. B. V. Ramana, M. J. Saxena, K. Ravikanth, Adarsh ., S. Maini

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 613-617
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/18459

Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the immunopotentiatory effect of Stresomix, a polyherbal anti stress, immunomodulatory formulation against blue tongue vaccination. The hypothesis was that antistress, adaptogenic and immunomodulatory properties of Stresomix constituent herbs viz. Magnifera indicaWithania somnifera and Phyllanthus emblica would enhance the immune response in deccani lambs and sheeps.
Study Design: Total 12 lambs and 12 adult deccani sheep were selected for the study. Vaccination was done with inactivated pentavalent Blue tongue vaccine at 1ml per animal subcutaneously.
Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted in Central Research Institute for Dry Land Agriculture, Santoshnagar, Hyderabad, India in Deccani breed of sheeps.
Methodology: The parameters viz. antibody titre and serum biochemical parameters were studied statistically.
Results: In deccani lambs, increase in the antibody titre against blue tongue (BT) in Stresomix supplemented group II (89.08) was significantly (P<0.01) higher as compared to lambs in untreated group I (69.88). Similarly, In adult deccani sheep, significant (P<0.01) increase in antibody titre was obtained in Stresomix supplemented group II (84.57) in comparison of untreated control group I (57.88)
Conclusion: The antibody titre determination and serum biochemical analysis revealed that the Stresomix did not change the biochemical profile so it is safe to use Stresomix for improving post vaccination immune response in sheep.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) in Adult Diarrhea Cases and their Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern

S. Mariyam Sunaifa, Somdatta Roy, B. Dhanashree

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 560-566
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/17468

Introduction: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC), an important etiologic agent of diarrhea is a major public health problem in developing countries. Relatively few studies have reported the role of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) as etiological agent of adult diarrhea.
Objective: To know the prevalence of EPEC in adults and to know their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns.
Methods: Diarrheagenic stool samples (n=300), received at the department of Microbiology, Kasturba Medical College hospital, Mangalore, were cultured to isolate E. coli and other intestinal pathogens. Biochemically identified E. coli isolates were further characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Moreover, all the stool samples were subjected directly to PCR. Antibiotic susceptibility for EPEC was done by Kirby Bauer’s disk diffusion method.
Results: Of the 300 stool samples processed, 61 samples showed the growth of E. coli. Four samples had grown Shigella flexneri, three were Vibrio cholerae and One was Aeromonas hydrophila. Among the E. coli isolates characterized by PCR, four were typical EPEC, and atypical EPEC and one isolate was found to be Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). PCR performed directly on stool samples also yielded the same result. Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed 42% of the E. coli other than DEC to be extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producers. However, one of the atypical EPEC was an ESBL producer.
Conclusions: In this study DEC, including EPEC types I and II, was found in a number of adult diarrheagenic stool samples and could be a possible cause of diarrhea in these patients. our study highlights the importance of PCR to differentiate atypical and typical EPEC. Presence of ESBL in commensal E. coli is a concern. Further characterization of these isolates from diarrheagenic individual and healthy controls is necessary to know their epidemiological significance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Activity Guided Fractionation with Antimicrobial Evaluation of Pergularia tomentosa L. (Asclepiadacea) Whole Plant

Rufai Yakubu, Fatima Musa, Aminu Lukman, Fatima Sheikh

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 567-576
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/17027

This research work aimed to present the activity guided fractionation with antimicrobial evaluation from both crude extract and various fractions obtained from Pergularia tomentosa L. whole plant. The P. tomentosa L. whole plant was extracted with 95% aqueous ethanol; fractionated into acidic, basic, polar and nonpolar fractions. All fractions with the crude extract were screened for both antimicrobial and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) potentialities. For crude extract, all concentrations (1.5, 0.75, 0.35, & 0.168 mg/ml) indicated marginal antibacterial activity with range of 17, 20, 14 mm zone of inhibition for S. aureusE. coli and C. albicans. While, both basic fraction showed highest activity against E. coli and C. albicans at 15 mm & 15 mm; along with acidic and methanolic fraction haven large spectrum against S. aureus, E. coli andC. albicans at 13, 12, 12 mm. Moreover hexane did not showed antimicrobial activity for both S. aureus and Calbicans except for E. coli which showed activity at 12 mm. The study clearly indicated that basic fraction showed highest antimicrobial activity for selected micro-organisms with lower minimum inhibitory concentration which ranges from 18.75 µg/ml to 150 µg/ml. Followed by wider spectrum of antimicrobial activity for acidic and methanolic fraction against all tested organisms with minimum inhibitory concentration from 75 µg/ml to 150 µg/ml; while 300 µg/ml (MIC) stand for hexane fraction. Thus, P. tomentosa L. particularly, the basic fraction (alkaloid) and, both acidic and neutral fractions will be centered areas for further scientific research findings in isolating an active antimicrobial component therein.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Widal Test with Cultural Methods for Evaluation of Salmnella typhi/paratyphi Infection

C. I. Eleazar, C. U. Iroegbu, I. P. Udoh

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 577-584
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/17986

Aims: To compare the effectiveness of the Widal screening, stool and blood cultures methods for typhoid/paratyphoid fever diagnosis in exposed subjects.
Study Design: Analysis involved a prospective study.
Place and Duration of Study: The study took place at the Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, between August 2009 - October 2010.
Methodology: A total of 1000 (500 stool and 500 blood each) samples from 248 males and 252 female aged, < 1 yr-68 yrs. The isolation from samples and identification were carried out with standard methods. Characterization was done using polyvalent sera and confirmed using single factor sera. The rates of recovery of S. paratyphi A, B, C and typhi D from stool and blood cultures of individuals positive at the various Widal antibody titres were evaluated.
Results: Among the subjects positive for S. paratyphi A at 1:160 Widal titre of O and H variants, the isolation rate from stool was 37.5%, while at 1:80 titre 39.1% was isolated from both blood and stool of each subject combined. For those positive for S. paratyphi B at 1:160 positive titres, the isolation rates from from stool and blood sample cultures combined was 46.7%. The 1:320 positive titre for paratyphi C had peak isolation rates (41.7%) from blood samples singly. In the case of S. typhi D the peak isolation rate (47.4%) was from blood at titre of 1:320. There was however significant difference (P= .001) among the rates of isolates of S. typhi D from blood, stool and stool/blood of subjects with the difference titre. However, there was no correlation (r= .256, .309 and .235), respectively among the data
Conclusion: Blood culture is a major aid to recovery and isolation of the organism in early stages of infection. Stool culture, though not very specific, may also be used as diagnostic method. Widal test, though only a screening method is also sensitive but only results yielding high titre are reliable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Implementing Maltodextrin, Polydextrose and Inulin in Making a Synbiotic Fermented Dairy Product

Gehan H. Bisar, Kh. El-Saadany, A. Khattab, Wedad M. El-Kholy

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 585-603
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/16950

Synbiotic products contain both probiotic bacteria and prebiotic compounds. The aim of this study was to produce a symbiotic Fermented dairy product with the polysaccharides / fibers (maltodextrin, polydextrose and inulin) with a 3% concentration in combining them with Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 15707,Streptococcus thermophiles Texl 5842 and Lactococcus lactis subsp lactis ATCC 53214 (Lac. lactis spp lactis) in either skimmed or full fat fermented milk, and testing, the sensory and physicochemical and microbiological properties for fresh product and after incubation for 7 days. It was shown that the pH was having a clear decrease and acidity was showing an increase that was lowered by increasing the storage days at 5-7°C as well as a significant decreasing in the syneresis and increase in log 10 cfu/g of B. longumATCC 15707 count and viscosity was markedly increased at maltodextrin treatment. Finally, it was concluded that Maltodextrin was found to have good results in stimulation the probiotic bacterial count and enhancing the sensory properties of fermented milk compared with inulin and that is recommended by our work to use it in industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria from a Lentic Freshwater Body in Iwo, Nigeria

O. E. Atobatele, A. A. Owoseni

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 604-612
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/17924

Aims: Bacterial resistance to antibiotics has become a major public health concern, the aim was to study bacterial resistance to antibiotics in bacteria isolated from Aiba water sampled from 4 locations in 3 different months
Place and Duration of Study: Water samples were collected from Aiba reservoir Iwo and Isolation and characterization of bacteria was carried out at the Department of Biological Sciences, Bowen University, Iwo, Osun State between January 2013 and December 2013.
Methodology: Bacterial resistance to antibiotics was studied by collecting representative spatial and seasonal water samples from 4 locations and in 3 different months respectively. Isolation and identification of bacteria were carried out using standard isolation and biochemical methods. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was done for 8 antibiotics using the standard Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Multivariate statistical analysis and plots were carried out using PAST software.
Results: One hundred percent (100%) of the isolates were resistant to cloxacillin followed by amoxicillin (87%), co-trimoxazole (78.3%) and augmentin (76%). Both gentamycin and ofloxacin recorded resistance of <10%. Thirty eight point five percent (38.5%) of the bacteria isolates were resistant to 4 antibiotics while only 11.5% exhibited mono-resistance.
Conclusion: The presence of high level multidrug resistance signifies a public health hazard.