Open Access Original Research Article

Production and Microbiological Assesment of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Fruit Wine

S. Awe, S. N. Nnadoze

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 480-488
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/16867

Aim of the Study: This study was undertaken to assess the possibility of using date palm fruit (Phoneix dactylifera L.) for wine production.
Study Design: Good quality, fresh and dried date fruit were gotten from Kankia village in Kastina State, Northen Nigeria, sliced to remove the seed and macerated using sterilised blender to give 8.5 kg of crushed date palm fruit used for the production.
Place and Duration: Date palm fruit (Phoneix dactylifera L.) wine production was studied from March to August, 2014 in Salem University Microbiology Laboratory, Lokoja, Nigeria.
Methodology: Date fruit wine was produced by fermenting the fruit must with Saccharomyces cerevisiaefrom Guangxi Danbaoli, China aerobically for 6 days with even stirring of the must twice daily and anaerobically for four weeks at 28±2°C. During both fermentation processes, the changes in pH, Titratable Acidity (TTA), sugar content, alcohol content, specific gravity, total yeast counts and total heterotrophic counts were monitored.
Results: During the aerobic fermentation, the pH dropped from 5.7 to 4.3, titratable acidity increased from 0.23 to 0.65, there was a notable decrease in the specific gravity from 1.070 sp.gr to 1.026, Alcohol content increased from 0 to 5.5%, Sugar content dropped from 17 to 0%, total yeast counts increased from 4.69×102to 15.39×102 viable cells/ml while total heterotrophic bacterial count ranged from 2.0 to 9.0 cfu/ml.Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus spp. were encountered. During anaerobic fermentation pH ranged increased from 4.3 to 4.6, TTA decreased from 0.65 to 0.30. There was a notable decrease in the specific gravity from 1.070 sp.gr to 1.026 sp.gr while during anaerobic fermentation, there was a slight change in the specific gravity from 1.026 sp.gr to 1.025 sp.gr. Yeast population dropped from 8.90×102 viable cells/ml to 0.92×102 cells/ml at the end of week 2, sugar was not detected and the final percentage alcohol was 9.2%. Sensory evaluation shows 71.8% acceptance compared to imported white wine (78.3%). This study has shown the probability of using date palm fruit as raw material for fruit wine production.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Ocimum suave Essential Oils against Uropathogens Isolated from Patients in Selected Hospitals in Bushenyi District, Uganda

Julius Tibyangye, Matilda Angela Okech, Josephat Maniga Nyabayo, Jessica Lukanga Nakavuma

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 489-498
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/17526

Aims: To determine antibacterial activity of Ocimum suave essential oils against bacterial uropathogens.
Study Design: A cross sectional and experimental study.
Place and Duration of Study: Six selected hospitals in Bushenyi District, Uganda between June 2012 and July 2013.
Methodology: Clean catch midstream urine samples were collected and inoculated on Cystine Lysine Electrolyte Deficient (CLED) agar. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24hrs to 48hrs. The O. suaveessential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation of leaves for 4hrs using a Clevenger apparatus. The oil was collected and dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) and kept at 4°C till further use. The antimicrobial activity of O. suave essential oils against isolates was determined by agar well method. The MIC of O. suave essential oil extract was carried out by micro-broth dilution method.
Results: Of the three hundred (300) midstream urine samples collected, 67(22.33%) had significant bacterial growth. Escherichia coli is the most common isolate (61.19%, n = 41). The essential oil from O. suave showed activity against isolates of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus, E. feacalis, M. morganiiCitrobacter speciesEnterobacter species and P. aeruginosa with mean zone of inhibition (ZI) ranging from 10-22 mm. The essential oils had no inhibitory activity on Acinetobacter species. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for O. suave essential oils ranged from 0.78 to 22 µg/ml. This study showed that O. suave essential oils had MIC value of 0.78 µg/ml against S. aureus and MIC values ranging from 3 to 22 µg/ml against the other tested isolates.
Conclusion: The most common uropathogen was E. coli (61.19% n = 41). O. suave essential oils exhibited antibacterial activity against majority of the uropathogens, except Acinetobacter species, mean ZI of 10-22 mm and MIC of 0.78 – 22 µg/ml.

Open Access Original Research Article

First Study of scpB Gene of Streptococcus agalactiae in Misiones, Argentina

M. E. Laczesk, M. G. Novosak, M. I. Vergara

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 499-506
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/17956

Aims: Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is the leading cause of neonatal infections. GBS presents different surface proteins of antigenic characteristics. These proteins are encoded by several genes associated with virulence and host interaction acting on bacteria involved in invasiveness. The study of these surface protein antigens is important for the understanding of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of the infection. Several of these antigens have been proposed as components of multivalent conjugate vaccines. This study focuses on the presence of scpB gene encoding the C5a peptidase in GBS. Recent studies indicate that C5a peptidase vaccine formulations cause a long-term immune response and prevent GBS infection.
Methodology: A total of 200 Streptococcus agalactiae isolates were collected from vaginal or rectal swabs of pregnant women with 35 – 37 weeks gestational age. Conventional biochemical tests and commercial kits for latex particle agglutination (Phadebact Strep B Test-ETC-Bactus International AB Sweden) were used to identify those isolates. GBS strains were preserved in 20% skim milk at -80°C and were recovered to search the gene scpB. The scpB gene was investigated by conventional PCR. PCR products were visualized on 2% agarose gel gel stained with GelRed® (Biotium, Inc.; US) and visualized of bands in UV trans illuminator (MUV Model 21-312-220), using MP (D0017 marker DNA fragments made up of 10 double-stranded DNA molecular size of 100 to 1000 pb-INBIO, Argentina).
Results: The presence of the scpB gene was detected in 100% of Streptococcus agalactiae strains studied.
Conclusion: Our findings highlight the importance of including C5a peptidase in the design of a regional vaccine. The high specificity of the scpB gene in GBS, and the lack of homologous sequences in other bacterial genera and species, makes it a molecular marker that can be used in the diagnosis of colonization or infection by this microorganism.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Sero-prevalence of HIV/AIDS among Patients Screened from 2008 - 2013 Attending Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital Barnawa Kaduna State North West Nigeria

Edward Isaac, Muktar Haruna, Olabode Samuel, Edward Deborah, Musa Maikano, Abubakar Sharafudeen, Taiwo L. Sheik, Stephen Olatunbosun

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 507-512
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/16757

Out of a total of 472 patients tested, from 2008-2013 at Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital Barnawa Kaduna State Nigeria, 67 (14.2%) were found to be sero-positive to HIV I/II antibody testing. The test involves 232 males and 240 females, 17 (7.3%) of the males were tested positive, while 50 (20.8%) of the females were found to be sero-positive. The age group (21-30) years has the highest number of patients screened while the age group (51 and above) years has the least number of participants. The age group of 11-20 years has the highest frequency of HIV positive patients with 18 (26.5%) testing positive within their age group while the age group 41-50 years has the least frequency, only 2 (4.1%) of this group testing positive. The sero-prevalence of HIV positive in this study among Psychiatry patients is 14.2%, which is significant.
Background: Several psychiatric conditions may predispose individuals to acquiring HIV infection as a consequence of their influence on behaviour. There is also strong evidence of the relationship of substance use disorders and severe mental illnesses with HIV infection. HIV related psychiatric disorders also offer a challenge to clinicians in issues of differential diagnosis and management.
Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving patients that where screened for the presence of HIV from the blood collected between 2008 to 2013 attending Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital Kaduna State, Northwestern Nigeria. The screening test was done qualitatively with Determine, Unigold and stat- pak, commercially sold kits ( Enzyme linked immunosorbent Assay method) as designed by the National algorithm of HIV screening in Nigeria.
Results: Out of a total of 472 patients tested, from 2008-2013 at Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital Barnawa Kaduna State Nigeria, 67 (14.2%) were found to be sero-positive to HIV I/II antibody testing. The test involves 232 males and 240 females, 17 (7.3%) of the males were positive, while 50 (20.8%) of the females were positive. The age group (21-30) years has the highest number of patients screened while the age group (51 and above) years has the least number of participants. The age group of 11-20 years has the highest frequency of HIV positive patients with 18 (26.5%), while the age group 41-50years has 2 (4.1%) testing positive. The sero-prevalence of HIV positive in this study among Psychiatry patients is 14.2%.

Open Access Review Article

Diversity of Acidophilic Bacteria and Archaea and their Roles in Bioremediation of Acid Mine Drainage

Muibat Omotola Fashola, Veronica - Mpode Ngole Jeme, Olubukola Oluranti Babalola

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 443-456
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/14365

Aims: To show the potential of acidophilic bacteria and archaea in bioremediation of acid mine drainage.
The Mining industry generates wealth, but its long term adverse effects, which include acid mine drainage (AMD), cannot be overlooked. Acid mine drainage occurs as a result of biological and chemical oxidation of sulphide containing minerals with consequent production of acidic metal rich effluents. AMD is a serious environmental pollution problem in both active and abandoned mines worldwide, resulting in continual contamination of surface and groundwater resources with heavy metals. Acidophilic bacteria and archaea have been known to contribute to the accentuation of this problem by speeding up the reaction time for biological oxidation of sulphide containing mineral waste rock. The dominant metal present in AMD is iron with high sulphate content; the iron may be present in either ferrous or ferric form or both depending on the water pH. Reduction of these two important constituents by generating alkalinity through chemical or biological means has been reported to have a significant effect in AMD impacted water. The metabolic activities of the acidophilic bacteria and archaea through ferric iron and sulphate reduction, a natural attenuation process, also help in remediating this pollution problem by generating alkalinity that immobilizes metals thereby reversing the reactions responsible for the genesis of AMD. This article reviews the various groups of the acidophilic prokaryotic microorganisms and their metabolic activities that help in remediating the problem of AMD in gold mines.

Open Access Review Article

Descriptive Analysis of Ebola virus Proteins: Towards Development of Effective Therapeutics and Vaccines

Samuel Munalula Munjita, Geoffrey Kwenda

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 457-479
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/16297

Ebola virus (EBOV) is a non-segmented enveloped RNA virus. It has seven structural proteins and three non-structural proteins (∆-peptide, ssGP and sGP). Structural proteins include viral proteins (VP24, VP30, VP35, and VP40), glycoprotein(GP), nucleoprotein(NP) and RNA polymerase L. The functions of structural proteins range from replication, transcription and maintenance of the structural stability of EBOV. VP24 and VP35 are well known for suppressing host interferon (IFN) response systems. There are no approved treatments for Ebola virus disease (EVD). However, several virus vectored vaccines aimed at inducing B and T cell immunity against GP and NP are currently under development or undergoing clinical trials. Unlike virus vectored vaccines, virus like particle (VLP) based vaccines have been developed to elicit immunity against GP, NP, and VP40. They can also be engineered to include VP24 and VP35. Several compounds such as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs), c3-NpcA, peptides, NSC629, E64, compound 3.47, compound 7, CA074, and Ca-c3 Ado that target different stages of the EBOV replication cycle have been found to be effective. Other compounds such as recombinant nematode anticoagulant protein c2 (rNAPc2) and Recombinant human activated protein C (rhAPC) have been designed to reduce coagulopathies seen in late stages of EVD. Cocktails of neutralising monoclonal antibodies are also effective against EBOV alone or in combination with IFNs. Therefore, this review discusses the structure and mechanism of action of EBOV proteins, current promising therapeutics and vaccines against EBOV, and different ways of improving their efficacy.