Open Access Short communication

Field and In-vitro Studies on Corynespora Leaf Fall Disease of Hevea brasiliensis in Nigeria

E. O. Akpaja, D. Omorogbe, N. A. Nwogu

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 322-328
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/16836

Aims: This study evaluated the current incidence and severity of Corynespora leaf fall disease (CLFD) in the fields among cultivated rubber clones grown in Nigeria and the growth performance of selected isolates of the pathogen on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA).
Study Design: The field survey was made in randomized complete block design consisting of three replicates.
Place and Duration of Study: The field study was carried out in the bud wood nursery of Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria (RRIN), Iyanomo, Edo State, Nigeria between April 2013 and August 2013.
Methodology: Ten (10) leaves per replicate were picked at random and assessed for incidence of CLFD based on severity. Disease-scoring rating chart was used in assessment of infection and calculation of Disease Index. The pathogenicity of all the different types of symptoms observed in CLFD was evaluated based on radial growth and biomass of the Corynespora cassiicola. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS software (version 16.0). Mean separation was done using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. All tests were carried out at 5% probability level.
Results: The incidence of CLF disease was found to be between 80 to 100% in all the rubber clones screened. When the isolates were grown on PDA, there were significant differences (P = .05) in the growth of the different isolates. The least mycelial diameter (2.08±0.25 cm) was observed in NIG 910 while the highest (6.60±0.13 cm) was recorded in NIG 804. NIG 800 showed the least mycelial biomass of 0.078±0.05 g while the highest mycelial biomass was recorded in NIG 900 (0.35±0.27 g) and NIG 910 (0.35±0.26 g).
Conclusion: In this study, it was observed that C. cassiicola infected all the rubber clones investigated with varying aggressiveness. Newly bred rubber clones should be developed and screened for resistance against C. cassiicola prior to recommendation to growers. Further studies to determine the exact role of cassiicolin in C. cassiicola pathogenicity would prove very useful in Hevea breeding programme.

Open Access Original Research Article

Opportunistic Intestinal Protozoan Infections in HIV/AIDS Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in the North West Region of Cameroon

Ntonifor Helen Ngum, Asanji Nelly Ngum, Shei Stanley Jini

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 269-275
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/15737

Background: In most developing countries, intestinal parasites are the major cause of morbidity and mortality killing millions of patients each year. Hence, this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of intestinal protozoans in HIV/AIDS patients on ART in three hospitals in the North West region of Cameroon.
Methodology: A cross sectional study was carried out in three Hospitals in the North West Region of Cameroon, focusing on HIV/AIDS patients who were enrolled for ART in these Hospitals. A total of 320 HIV/AIDS patients aged 1-70 years, of both sexes (230 females and 90 males) participated in the study. Stool samples were collected and processed using direct wet mount, formol-ether concentration technique and modified Ziehl-Neelson staining techniques.
Results: Results obtained showed that out of the 320 stool samples examined, 120 (37.5%) were infected with at least one species of intestinal protozoa. Males showed a significantly higher prevalence of 41.1% (37) as compared to the females 36.09% (83). Prevalence was also significantly higher in the rural areas 42.4%, (87) than in the urban areas 28.7%, (33). The age group with the highest prevalence was that of 31-40 years 40.6%, (43). The prevalence for parasite species was 14.4% for Cryptosporidium parvum, 13.4% for Entamoeba coli, 11.3% for Entamoeba histolytica, 7.8% for Microsporidia, 2.2% for Iodamoeba butschlii and 1.9% for Cystoisospora belli.
Conclusion: The results indicated that opportunistic intestinal infections are a threat to HIV patients in the studied area. Therefore public health measures should be strongly encouraged to improve the life quality of the patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biodeterioration Abilities of Microorganisms in Brake Fluids

Chinonye Medline Maduka, Gideon Chijioke Okpokwasili

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 276-287
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/16557

Aims: To identify the parameters that get affected when brake fluids biodeteriorate and also to make known that brake fluids biodeteriorates into novel compounds. To also identify the organisms that deteriorates brake fluids most.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, between November 2013 and August 2014.
Methodology: Two brands of brake fluids were used (Ate and Allied). Used and Unused samples of these brake fluids were included. Microbiological analysis and physico-chemical analysis were carried out. Deterioration testing was also carried out after which gas chromatography was done to know the level of deterioration.
Results: Ate brake fluids deteriorated more than the Allied brake fluid. Biodeterioration of brake fluid is more pronounced when a mixed culture of bacteria and fungi is involved. The more the biodeterioration of the brake fluid, the lesser the pH and the higher the total viable count or the optical density. Gas chromatograms revealed that the carbon numbers shown on the peaks indicated the novel compounds the brake fluids deteriorated to. Statistical analysis using ANOVA (excel) showed that there were significant differences in the total viable counts, pH and optical densities between the mixed microbial cultures of bacteria and fungi in used Ate and used Allied brake fluids and between the mixed cultures in the used brake fluids and the unused brake fluids at P< 0.05. Significant difference was also noticed in the ANOVA readings of the viscosities of the used and unused brake fluids.
Conclusion: Brake fluid which is one of the fluids used in vehicles should be changed from time to time following the directives of the manufacturer and the idea of mixing different types of brake fluids for use in a particular vehicle should not be practiced by the owners of these automobiles.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacterial Profile and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Assiut University Hospitals, Upper Egypt; a One-year Prospective Study

Mona Sallam Embarek Mohamed, Mohamed Ahmed El-Mokhtar, Alaa Thabet Hassan

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 288-305
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/16317

The majority of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations are caused by infections of the tracheobronchial tree. Previous data on bacterial exacerbations of COPD in Upper Egypt are limited. Hence, this study was conducted for the identification of the causative bacteria in exacerbations of COPD, and to illustrate their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns at Assiut University Hospitals, Upper Egypt. A total of 116 COPD patients who underwent 167 infection exacerbation attacks participated in this prospective study during 2013. Significant bacterial growth was found in 143 (86%) out of the 167 exacerbation attacks. The most common detected bacteria were Haemophilus influenzae (19.4%), Escherichia coli (18%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (16.7%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (14%), Streptococcus pyogenes (10%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.6%), methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (5.6%), Acinetobacter baumannii (4.2%), and Moraxella catarrhalis (2.8%). The majority of the isolated strains showed high resistance rates to most groups of antibiotics where 91 (63%) of the isolated strains were multidrug resistant, 37 (26%) strains were extreme drug resistant and 16 (11%) bacterial strains were pandrug resistant. High resistance rates were observed against penicillins and cephalosporins. Moderate resistance rates were detected against the fluoroquinolones. High susceptibilities were detected to the carbapenem group. All the isolated Gram-positive bacteria were sensitive to linezolid.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Seroprevalence of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Types 6,11,16 and 18 among Women Attending Cervical Screening (Pap Smear) Service in Abakaliki, Southeastern Nigeria

B. A. F. Ngwu, G. O. Ezeifeka

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 306-312
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/15972

The seroprevalence of the causative agent of cervical cancer: Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) types in any region is essential for the effective prevention and control of cervical cancer in that region, since there are over 100 types of HPV with high and low risk types. In this study the occurrence of HPV types 6, 11, and 16 & 18 were studied among women attending cervical screening (Pap smear) center in a Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Ebonyi State Nigeria. Consents were obtained and blood samples were aseptically collected and processed for HPV assay using HPV IgG ELISA kits from Cusabio Co. LTD Germany. The results showed that out of 360 women aged between 20 years and 63 years with a mean age of 34±9 years who came for Pap smear screening, only 25% (90) gave consent for HPV testing and participated in the study. The overall result showed that 71.1% (64) were positive and 28.9% (26) were negative. The high risk HPV16 and HPV 18 had the prevalence of 22.2% and 21.2% respectively, while the low risk HPV 6,11, had 27.8%. We concluded that there is higher seroprevalence of low risk HPV types 6,11 than high risk HPV types 16,18; and low acceptance of HPV testing in Abakaliki, southeastern Nigeria (25%). We recommend an urgent Medical education and sensitization of women in this region about the risk factors for HPV transmission and the need to participate in HPV testing services provided by the teaching hospital in order to prevent the transmission of HPV and thereby control cervical cancer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aerobic Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Laboratory Contaminated Groundwater

Owhonka Aleruchi, O. Abu Gideon

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 313-321
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/16231

Two treatment options A and B were set up in quadruple using Erlenmeyer flasks containing spiked groundwater samples from a hand dug well to study the effects of nutrient amendment and natural attenuation on hydrocarbon removal under laboratory aerobic conditions. Treatment A received 0.5g of N.P.K (15:15:15) fertilizer as nutrient amendment while treatment B received no treatment in order to measure the rate of hydrocarbon removal by natural attenuation. The bioremediation process was monitored for 56 days by periodic (0, 14, 28, 42, 56) measurements of total hydrocarbon content, pH, nitrate, phosphate, sulphate and dissolved oxygen to establish their effects on hydrocarbon removal under laboratory conditions. Enumeration of total heterotrophic bacteria and total hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria was also periodically carried out. The total hydrocarbon content removal in nutrient amendment and natural attenuation at day 56 showed percentage removal of 89 and 74, respectively. Total heterotrophic and total hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial count increased progressively in all the treatment options. The nutrient amendment (treatment A) showed greater removal of the hydrocarbon pollutants. The physicochemical analyses at day 56 were within the World Health Organization standard for drinking water. Statistical analysis revealed that there was significant difference in the data obtained from treatment A and B for total hydrocarbon content, total heterotrophic bacteria, hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria, conductivity and nitrate at p<0.05. Bacterial strains isolated include Bacillus sp., Arthrobacter sp., Micrococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Alcaligenes sp. and Flavobacterium sp. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in laboratory contaminated groundwater under nutrient amendment conditions was found to be higher than the untreated, unamended condition.