Open Access Short Research Article

Biofilm, Antimicrobial & Reductive Ability of London Rocket S. irio

Rawaa Nazar Al Chalabi, Ruqaya M. Al-Ezzy, Nabeel K. Al-Ani, Shatha Al Bayati

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v28i230127

Sisymbrium irio is a plant used in folk medicine in Asian peoples. In 79 samples collected from hospitals, 71 were infected with Gram-positive bacteria. Performing API 20 samples showed 17(23.94%) were S. pyrogens and 54(76.06%) were S. aureus. In an experiment for antibiotic sensitivity, the samples showed 100% sensitivity to penicillin, cephalexin, cefotaxime, tetracycline, Amoxicillin and methicillin. However, the sensitivity was less in Vancomycin, clindamycin, Rifampin. Moreover, it was resistance to ciprofloxacin. Test tube method used to detectability of pathogenic S. aureus isolates which isolated from the skin of children had impetigo for biofilm formation. The result illustrated the high per cent of S. aureus isolates were able to produce biofilm. 47 (87%)   S. aureus isolates produce biofilm with different degree of thickness and only 6 (13%) isolates unable to produce biofilm. The total flavonoids content was determined by spectrophotometer. The ethanol, metabolic and aqueous extract of S. irio as rutin the best standard substance for flavonoids. The best absorbance was methanol extract followed by water then, ethanol extracts. Reductive ability was carried out to know the effect of free radicals. The best extract was methanol followed by ethanol then, water extract.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Bacteria Isolated from Kenyan Bank Notes Circulating in Nyeri Town

S. G. Muguongo, A. K. Nyamache, J. M. Maingi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v28i230125

Aims: The aim of this study was to characterize bacteria isolated from circulating Kenyan banknotes and also antibiotic susceptibility profiles within Nyeri County.

Study Design:  This was a cross-sectional study and simple random sampling was used to collect 25 of each paper currency denomination.

Place and Duration of Study: Samples analyses were done at Outspan Teaching and Referral Hospital (OTRH) laboratory, between March, 2019 and April, 2019.

Methodology: Total of 125 currencies of five different denominations were collected from different marketing sources such as Butcheries, Restaurants, Health facilities, Mpesa outlets and Transport Saccos and dropped in sterile bags. The bacterial isolates were characterized on the basis of their morphology, staining and biochemical tests. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were done by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique.

Results: Total of 19 different bacterial species were isolated from five Kenyan Bank note currencies. Of these, 37 (52.2%) was Staphylococcus aureus followed by Staphylococcus sciuri ssp.lentus 7 (9.9%), Staphylococcus gallinarum 2 (2.8%), Staphylococcus intermedius 6 (8.5%), Micrococcus sp. 1 (1.4%), Staphylococcus schleiferi ssp.coagulans 2 (2.8%), Staphylococcus sciuri ssp.rodentium 1 (1.4%), Kluyvera ascorbata 1 (1.4%), Proteus penneri 1 (1.4%), Aeromonas media 3 (4.2%), Burkholderia cepacia ssp.komplex (1.4%), Aeromonas enteropelogenes 1 (1.4%), Enterobacter cloacae 1 (1.4%), Klebsiella oxytoca 2 (2.8%), Leclercia adecarboxylata 1 (1.4%), Raoultella ornithinolytica 1 (1.4%), Vibrio metschnikovii  1 (1.4%), Myroides odoratus 1 (1.4%) and Yersinia pestis 1 (1.4%). Overall gram positive and gram negative bacterial isolates exhibited resistance to vancomycin, clindamycin and amoxycilin with percentages 40 (71%), 28 (50%), and 37 (66%) and 9 (64%), 8 (57%) and 6 (43%)  respectively.

Conclusion: This study revealed that Kenyan banknote currencies circulating in Nyeri County were contaminated with different pathogenic and potential pathogenic bacteria including multi drug resistant strains. Hence, great care must be taken while handling money during the preparation and handling of food to avoid cross contamination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice towards Voluntary Counseling and Testing Service among University Students, Southern Ethiopia

Tilahun Ermeko, Dawit Kebede, Abate Lette

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v28i230126

Background: Voluntary testing and counseling (VCT) is the process by which an individual undergoes confidential counseling, to enable the individual arrive at an informed choice with respect of learning his or her HIV status and advice on taking the appropriate action. It is vitally important and one of the national strategy to control HIV/AIDS epidemics in the general population and is internationally acknowledged as essential strategy for HIV prevention and entry point to HIV/ AIDS care. HIV/AIDS is a disease which affects the human immune system caused by infection with human immune deficiency virus. According to Ministry of Health, in Ethiopia the highest prevalence of HIV is seen in the age group 15-24 years.

Objective: This study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice towards HIV voluntary testing and counseling among undergraduate at the Wachemo University, southern Ethiopia.

Methods: Institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted at Wachemo University from February 10 to February 30/2018.Multistage sampling method was used to enroll students from different faculties. Main outcome measures included level of knowledge, attitude and practice of VCT for HIV.

Results: A total of 623 students participated in the study yields the response rate of 100%. The majority, (91.2%) of respondents were heard about voluntary counseling and testing of HIV. More than half, (63.0%) of the students disagreed that voluntary counseling and testing of HIV service in the campus is not functional and not giving service appropriately. The majorities, (93.4%) of the study participants were knowledgeable about voluntary testing and counseling of HIV; and 491 (78.8%) of the study participants had positive attitude towards voluntary testing and counseling of HIV.  However, only one thirds (36.7%) of the respondents had practiced voluntary testing and counseling of HIV.

Conclusion: Despite high knowledge and favorable attitude towards VCT, more than half of the respondents (63.3%) don’t experienced HIV test, for the following reason: Fear of positive result (32.4%), stigmatization (15.9%), while (30.7%) being sure of not having HIV.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Detection ctx-M, TEM and VIM in ESBL-Producing E. coli Strains Isolated from Pregnant Women in Osogbo

O. C. Adekunle, A. J. Falade-Fatila, G. Odewale

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v28i230128

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a major bacterial infection causing serious health problem in pregnant women. The physiological and anatomical changes in pregnancy facilitate urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy is associated with pyelonephritis, preterm labour and low birth weight infants. The study was designed to characterise phenotypically and genetically the major organism associated with UTI among pregnant women in Osun State. A cross-sectional study design was used to collect mid-stream urine samples between March 2018 to September 2018 from 150 pregnant and 50 non-pregnant women which serve as control. Samples were inoculated into Cysteine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient (CLED) medium, subcultured onto MacConkey and Blood agar plates. A standard agar disc diffusion method was used to determine antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates and the molecular detection of the antibiotic resistant genes were done. Data were subjected to descriptive statistics. The ages of women enrolled in this study ranges from 22 to 43 years (mean ± standard deviation = 25 ± 4.7 years). The predominant bacteria identified were E. coli (34.5%), S. aureus (10.3%), coagulase negative Staphylococci [CoNS] (17.2%), Klebsiella species (6.9%) and Enterobacter species (31.0%). Majority of Gram-negative bacteria isolates were resistant to ampicillin (70%), cefotaxime (62%), while 75–100% of the Gram positive isolates were resistant to ampicillin. Multiple drug resistance was observed, all the E. coli isolates were resistant to Cefotaxime, meropenem and ampicillin. Of E. coli isolates, 4, 3 and 6 were positive for the VIM, ctx-M and TEM genes respectively.Similarly, the risk of UTI was higher in those had previous UTI history (OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.15–4.56, P = 0.019) as compared to those who had no previous history of UTI.

Open Access Original Research Article

Retracted: Determination of Tolerance Potentials of Some Bacteria Species to Heavy Metals Isolated from Contaminated Gold Mining Soil in Abare, Zamfara State

H. Hauwa, C. M. Z. Whong, S. A. Ado, Abdulmumin, A. Nuhu

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v28i230129

This aim of this research was to determine the tolerance ability of Bacillus lentus, Bacillus firmus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The soil sample was analysed for it heavy metal content lead was found to be in abundance beyond tolerable limit followed by cupper. Several bacterial specie were also isolated and identified from the sample and some selected species were tested for their tolerance ability in different heavy metal concentration, It was recorded that pseudomonas aeruginosa was tolerant to lead (Pb) at 800 mgl-1 Bacillus lentus to cupper at 860 mgl -1 and Bacillus firmus to chromium at 1000mgl-1. It was concluded that despite the toxicity of some heavy metals some bacterial specie were still able to withstand the environment.


Retraction Notice: This paper has been retracted from the journal. This journal is determined to promote integrity in research publication. This retraction is in spirit of the same. After formal procedures editor(s) and publisher have retracted this paper on 17th October 2019. Related policy is available here: