Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Bacteriological Quality of Tono and Vea Dams Water in the Upper East Region, Ghana

Vincent Ninkuu, Lawrence Adelani Adetunde, Anabia Carlos Nsoh, Michael Guri, Akuffo Brown Asare

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 10-17
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/14746

Aim of the Study: This study was undertaken to assess the bacteriological quality of water from the Tono and Vea dams.
Study Design: Water samples from both Tono and Vea irrigation dams in the Upper East Region of Ghana were collected and analyzed to assess their bacteriological quality. A total of 64 water samples were collected from the dams.
Place and Duration: Vea and Tono dams in Navrongo and Bolgatanga were studied from March to April, 2011.
Methodology: Multiple Tube Fermentation (MTF) technique was used for the determination of total coliform and fecal coliform. Total heterotrophic bacteria counts and Salmonella counts were determined using standard plate count methods.
Results: Mean Most Probable Number obtained for total coliform counts of the water samples from Tono ranged from 150 to 1600 mpn/100 ml while Vea samples ranged from 150 to >1600 mpn/100 ml. Mean faecal coliform counts of Tono water ranged from 79 to 920 mpn/100 ml while Vea water ranged from 70 to 920 mpn /100 ml. The mean total heterotrophic bacteria counts of Tono water ranged from 12 to >300 x 108cfu/ml while Vea water ranged from 11 to >300 x 108 cfu/ ml. Mean Salmonella counts of both Tono water and Vea water ranged from 2 to 10 x 104 cfu/ ml.

Conclusion: The contamination highlights more severe environmental problem in the study areas through faecal contamination. The environmental issues have jeopardized or compromised the quality of the dam water making the water unsuitable for drinking purpose without appropriate techniques for water purification before consumption. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that there should be regular surveillance of water sources for bacteriological quality and efforts to control the bacteriological contamination in order to meet millennium development goal 7.

Open Access Original Research Article

In silico Structural Characterization of Rv3473c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv: Potentials in Drug Development

Nurul Islam, Giasuddin Ahmed, Vishal Trivedi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 18-27
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/15005

Aims: Large proportion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv proteome still needs to be characterized especially peroxidase proteins as drug targets. There is twenty (20) known peroxidases that have been annotated in the genome. Among these Rv3473c has been studied by us using suitable in silico methods.
Methodology: The multiple sequence alignment of Rv3473c with PDB IDs 1BRO (277 aa), 1A7U (277 aa) and 1BRT (277 aa) indicates that the protein has well defined peroxidase motif. The 3-D molecular model of Rv3473c was generated using 1BRO, 1A7U and 1BRT as templates.
Results: Structural characterization indicates that it has the ‘perhydrolase motif –G-X-S-X-G-, and the catalytic triad consists of the residues Ser73, His236 and Ser208. In addition, it has been found to contain the residues like Ser73, Phe77, Leu33, His5, Gly8, and among these Ser73 is the probable halide (bromine) binding site. Charge distribution analysis of active site indicates positively charged pocket near Ser208 of the catalytic triad whereas His236 remains within the negatively charged region. Ser73 of the ‘perhydrolase motif’ lies in the positively charged region of Rv3473c, however, another part of this motif is present in the hydrophobic region of the protein. Rv3473c uses H2O2 as nucleophile to form peracids. The presence of active site residues, oxyanion hole support the catalytic mechanism of Rv3473c as reported for other non-metal dependent bromoperoxidases.
Conclusion: Rv3473c, found out to be a non-metal dependent bromoperoxidase through in silico means, may prove its efficiency in near future in designing better drugs against tuberculosis after further research on it.

Open Access Original Research Article

Level of Awareness of Hepatitis B Viral Infection among a Subset of Makurdi Community in Benue State, Nigeria

M. S. Odimayo, S. I. Nwadioha, P. M. Utoo

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 28-34
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/11864

Background: The high prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers worldwide coupled with complications such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma makes the disease a global health challenge.
Aim: To determine the level of awareness of a subset of Makurdi, Benue state’s populace on HBV infection and control.
Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted among members of Benue State University (BSU) community in Makurdi, Benue state, Nigeria on 25th November, 2012. Socio-demographic data was collected from participants with the aid of structured questionnaires. Awareness on hepatitis B viral infection and knowledge of the various modes of transmission of Hepatitis B infection were also assessed.
Results: A total of 728 individuals were recruited into this study consisting of 308 (42.31%) females and 420 (57.69%) males. Majority (63%) were between 21 and 30 years of age. Over 90% of the study group attained up to tertiary level of education; about 30% were married and 81.1% had heard of HBV. There was a significant awareness on hepatitis B virus infection among the study population. 34.9%, 43.8%, 54% and 50.7% were fully aware that HBV can be transmitted from infected mother to child during delivery, through sexual contact with infected partner, through use of HBV infected blood product and use of needle contaminated with HBV, respectively. Only 43%, 43.1% and 32.3% knew HBV is not transmitted by dirty toilet, drinking contaminated water or hugging infected individuals respectively.
Conclusion: There is a significant awareness on hepatitis B virus infection and its transmission among our study population; however, some misconceptions which can result in stigmatization of HBV infected individuals exist. We recommend the strengthening of ongoing Health Education programs on HBV in this environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Potential of Different Parts of Aerva lanata (L.) Against Some Selected Clinical Isolates from Urinary Tract Infections

Ramalingam Vidhya, Rajangam Udayakumar

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 35-47
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/15738

Aims: To investigate the antibacterial activity of different parts of Aerva lanata against Staphylococcus saprophyticusStreptococcus agalactiae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Xanthomonus citri, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris.
Study Design: An experimental study.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Department Laboratory, Government Arts College (Autonomous), Kumbakonam-612 001, Tamilnadu, India, between November 2013 and April 2014.
Methodology: The different solvents like acetone, aqueous, benzene and ethyl acetate were used for the preparation of extracts. The antibacterial activity of the different solvent extracts of root, flower and leaf of A. lanata was determined by agar well diffusion method. Different concentration of extracts 5 mg / 25 µl, 10 mg / 50 µl, 15 mg / 75 µl and 20 mg / 100 µl were tested against selected microorganisms
Results: All extracts have different level of antibacterial activity and it was compared with standard drug streptomycin. The maximum level of bacterial growth inhibition was seen in root extracts of A. lanata.
Conclusion: The present investigation clearly indicates that the different solvent extracts of root, flower and leaf of A. lanata exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. The ethyl acetate extract of root have higher activity when compared to flower and leaf extracts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Convergent Rays on Coliform and Total Culturable Heterotrophic Bacteria in Water

Anafe Michael Ugbong, Abiye Anthony Ibiene, Chioma Nkeiruka Onuoha, C. Okorie Iheanyichukwu Patrick

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 48-54
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/15696

Aims: Verification of the effect of convergent rays on coliform and total culturable heterotrophic bacteria counts (TCHBC) in River (surface water), well and borehole (underground) water bodies around Choba and Aluu communities.
Place and Duration of Study: The efficiency of convergent ray’s disinfection of surface (Rivers) and underground (well and Borehole) water bodies was conducted on Choba and Aluu communities water samples in River State, Nigeria in the Department of Microbiology laboratory, University of Port Harcourt between November, 2012 to December, 2013.
Methodology: Different volumes of water samples were exposed to converged rays for 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours intervals using a circular-dish ray concentrator covered with Aluminum foil paper as the reflecting material. The TCHBC was determined using bacterial plate counts while the coliform population was determined using the most probable number multiple tube technique.
Results: The study showed that coliform and TCHBC population had the same logarithmic values at 0 hour and after 2 hours of exposure (1.2 logMPN/100 ml and 2.2 log cfu/ml). The coliform population of the 2 and 4 Litre aliquots decreased from 1.2 and 2.2 to 0.0 log MPN/100 ml after 8 hours while the total culturable heterotrophic bacterial population decreased from 2.1 and 2.2 for 0 hour to 0.9 and 1.2 log cfu/ml after eight (8) hours of exposure. The pH of water samples were as follows; River water 5.0, Well 6.4 and borehole 7.0 respectively.
Conclusion: The research was able to provide satisfactory and dependable results compared to World Health Organization and Environmental Protection Agency WHO and EPA drinking water standard with MPN/100 ml to be 0.0 log MPN/100 ml and 0.9 and 1.2 cfu/ml total culturable heterotrophic bacteria count after 8 hours of exposure compared to 1.2 log MPN/ml and 2.2 logcfu/ml before the convergent rays exercised; thus, the study justifies the use of convergent rays for water disinfection.

Open Access Review Article

Comparison of Molecular Methods of Microbial Serotyping

Archana Singh Sikarwar, Mariyam Nashtha Nashid

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/15210

Molecular serotyping methods have advantages and disadvantages in terms of different parameters. Since different methods depend on different parameters there is a possibility that one serotype detected by one method maybe missed by another method. So it is very important to use combination of molecular methods for serotyping because it would allow accurate serotyping. The best molecular serotyping method is pyrosequencing. However, advanced molecular methods, especially the sequence-based methods are currently evolving and relatively expensive; it would take some time for it to be widely used. To increase the serotyping capacity of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), more serotype-specific primers should be designed. To increase the reliability of DNA microarray, an internal probe hybridization control (IHC) can be used which would indicate any variability in the hybridization process. Moreover to further decrease the cost of DNA microarray, all fluorescent labelling can be replaced with biotin labelling. Sequencing of more isolates of the same serotype would definitely improve the sequence-based serotyping assays.