Open Access Short Research Article
Salmonella is an important cause of infection in both humans and animals. This study was therefore carried out to identify the non-typhoidal Salmonella isolates from poultry chicken which is one of the main animal reservoirs of Salmonellosis and from HIV/AIDS patients in Ekiti State, Nigeria. A total of 200 samples were collected altogether (100 human feacal samples, 50 human blood and 50 feacal samples from broiler chicken) and analysed using standard methods. The antimicrobial susceptibilities were also carried out using disc diffusion technique. A total of 18 non-typhoidal Salmonella isolates were obtained from human samples with prevalent rate of 12% and 4 non-typhoidal Salmonella isolates were from poultry broiler-chicken with prevalent rate of 8%. There was no significant difference in number of male and female as there were 10 males and 8 females infected with non-typhoidal Salmonella, with a median age of 30 years. Although, almost all the human and Broiler-Chicken non- typhoidal Salmonella isolates showed resistance to more than one antibiotic but Ampicilin, Tetracycline and Gentamycin showed 100% resistance rate to Broiler-chicken isolates while Ceftriaxone and Ofloxacin showed least resistance among human isolates. The average resistances to seven commonly prescribed antibiotics were more in Broiler-Chicken (78.6%) than in Humans (53.9%). However, the high resistance showed in poultry suggested that there might likely be spread of these resistance strains to human in this study environment.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aims: To clone and express, the gene encoding L-asparaginase II (ansB2) from Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica SCRI 1043 in E. coli BL21 (DE3). Further, the work is also comprised of purification and detailed biochemical characterization of L-asparaginase II.
Place and Duration of Study: Biochemical Engineering laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam India. Experiments conducted as a part of project and a PhD thesis from December 2010 to January 2014.
Methodology: The gene encoding L-asparaginase II (ansB2) from Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica SCRI 1043 was cloned and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). Affinity chromatography was employed to purify the enzyme to homogeneity. Detailed biochemical characterization, such as substrate specificity, operational stability in various effect or molecules, effect of pH and temperature, kinetic parameters were investigated.
Results: The enzyme was found to be highly specific towards its natural substrate, L-asparagine. The activity of recombinant L-asparaginase II was activated by various effector compounds, such as mono cations, L-cystine, L-histidine, 2-mercaptoethanol and glutathione. However, considerable inhibitory effect was observed with divalent cations and iodoactamide. Kinetic parameters (Vmax, Km, kcat and Kcat/Km) of purified recombinant L-asparaginase II were found to be 0.656 mM, 312.50 IU mg-1, 1.38×102 s-1 and 2.11×105 M-1s-1, respectively. Optimum range of pH and temperature for the hydrolysis of L-asparagine by purified recombinant L-asparaginase II were found to be 6.5-9.5 and 47-52ºC, respectively. Under optimal levels of medium components and physical process parameters (pH, inoculum size, agitation), the production of recombinant L-asparaginase II was increased by 1.95 fold. The purified recombinant L-asparaginase II has shown no glutaminase activity.
Conclusion: The present characterization experiments of the L-asparaginase II from Erwinia carotovorasubsp. atroseptica SCRI 1043 showed very high specificity for its natural substrate, L-asparagine and shown no glutaminase activity which makes it a better alternative in therapeutic applications like an anticancer drug.
Open Access Original Research Article
Background: After air, water is one of the greatest significant essentials for life, which is considered as one of the nutrients. Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) is one of the most common waterborne protozoan parasites, causing diarrheal disease in human beings and animal diseases throughout the world.
Material and Methods: A total of 150 containing 1.5 L from each water samples were collected from different water sources of district Bannu from 1st May, 2012 to 30th April, 2013 and for further process the samples were brought to the Department of Zoology Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat within 24 hours. Water samples containing different water sources (Tap water, Bore water, Stream water and Pond water) in seven different areas of District Bannu (Pakistan). The water was filtered through Whattman filter paper No. 42 having 2.5µm pore size and the residue was subjected to Microscopy, DNA extraction and PCR was conducted for detection of G. lamblia. To increase the sensitivity of the test a small region (125-bp) of the SSU rRNA was targeted for the PCR amplification.
Results: The overall prevalence of G. lamblia in drinking water of district Bannu was 20% microscopically, including 28.33% in Stream water, 12.5% in Tap water, 20% in Tap water and was absent in Bore water. While that of PCR based study the overall prevalence of parasite (G. lamblia) was 24%, including Stream 28.33%, Tap water, 20%, Pond water 26.66% and Bore water 15 %. The highest prevalence of G. lamblia was 25% recorded in Tap water of Basia Khel through microscopic study & that of PCR based study, the highest prevalence was recorded in the Stream water of Bannu City which was 37.5% and P<.05 was considered significant.
Conclusion: It was revealed from the current study that G. lamblia is present in water sources in some areas in district Bannu, which may be due to flooding and improper management of water scheme. The study recommended that a proper treatment of water for human consumption is required, especially in Bannu City and Basia Khel in district Bannu.
Open Access Review Article
Botulinum toxin is utilized in many drugs for the treatment purposes in healthcare. Besides healthcare, it is also utilized in the cosmetic industry. Botulism toxin is a very good friend as far as we use it with precaution and follow all guidelines for controlled doses for medication. Botulinum toxin is also known as Botulinum neurotoxin, which has been classified as seven serotypes, structurally similar but different in their antigenic and serological properties. Toxins are specific proteases, which act by degrading the protein component essential for exocytosis. BoNT/A is widely applied in neurological treatment as remodelling of neuromuscular junctions. Despite causing neuromuscular disease that could prove fatal, BoNTs are of great interest and may unveil their true potential in medical applications. They could become very useful and valuable research tools, which may lead to novel applications from cosmetic interventions to development of potent anti-cancer drugs.
Open Access Review Article
Purpose of Review: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a neurologic disease that produces ascending paralysis that affects people all over the world. Several infectious agents have been associated with GBS and many reports suggest that infection with Campylobacter jejuni, a common enteric pathogen, may cause GBS by triggering demyelination of peripheral nerves. This review provides an update on the C. jejuniinfections engaged in the developing of GBS.
Summary and Results: Guillain–Barré syndrome is the most common cause of acute neuromuscular paralysis, yet its cause and pathogenesis are unknown. In approximately two thirds of patients, neuropathic symptoms follow an infection — often a mild, undiagnosed respiratory or gastrointestinal illness. The organism that has most frequently been described in association with GBS is C. jejuni, a gram-negative rod that is now the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in developed countries. Although there has been a plethora of case reports and studies documenting the association, the specific clinical and epidemiologic features are not well known. In addition, there is controversy about whether those with preceding C. jejuni infection have a more severe form of the GBS. C. jejuni can cause the disease by a mechanism called molecular mimicry. C. jejuni contains ganglioside-like epitopes in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) moiety that elicit autoantibodies which can react with peripheral nerve targets. It seems that heterogeneity in the LPS structure determines the specificity of the antiglycolipid response and thereby the clinical features in patients with a post-campylobacter infection neuropathy.
Open Access Review Article
HIV/AIDS disease manifestations play critical roles on the host's immune response to infections especially cell-mediated immunity which is central in combating many other infections, allowing opportunistic pathogens that otherwise rarely infect humans, to cause disease. There is paucity of information to satisfactorily explain the geographical pathophysiological overlaps of malnutrition, bacterial, parasitic, and viral infections widespread in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where HIV burden is much higher than elsewhere. HIV and/or co-infections may worsen HIV related symptoms and outcomes, alter the presentation or/and increase viral virulence consequently, assisting the infectivity. Hence, co-infections are potential cofactors of HIV transmission in SSA. Most of currently published work often underplays co-infections resulting in misleading statistics and conclusions. A lot of studies have been done assessing single infections in isolation or independently yet in real life practical situation such solitary infections are rare. The prevalence of co-infections, how these in isolation or combination modify or modulate HIV transmission remains poorly described.