Open Access Short communication

Occurrence and Antibiogram of Salmonella Isolates from Patients Attending Bingham Hospital, Jos, Nigeria

N .D. Dawang

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 441-446
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/13247

This study was carried out from Dec.2011 to Jan. 2012 and occurrence and susceptibility patterns of salmonella isolates were determined. Five hundred and fifty samples (comprising of 355 from stool and 200 from blood) were collected from patients with symptoms of salmonella infection attending Bingham University Teaching Hospital. Antibiotic sensitivity of the isolates was performed with the following drugs: septrine (30µg), streptomycin (30µg), chloramphenicol (30µg), sparfloxacin (10µg), ciprofloxacin (10µg), trivid(10µg), amoxacillin (30µg), augmentin (30µg), gentamicin (10µg) and pefloxacin (30µg) using Kirby-Bauer’s method .Only 12(2.2%) out of 555 examined samples yielded Salmonella species. Twelve Salmonellaspp.were isolated from females (58.3%, n=7) while 5 from males (41.7%, n= 5). The difference was however not statistically significant (p≥0.05). The most infection age range was 35-39 years old while ages 0-4 years and 10-14 years showed no infection. Nine isolates of Salmonella sp exhibited multi drug resistance character while only 3 were sensitive, one of these three showed complete sensitivity to the entire antibiotic tested. The Salmonella species isolates showed most sensitivity (58%) to ciprofloxacin, augmentin and gentamicin followed by trivid, streptomycin and chloramphenicol (50% each). The least sensitivity of the isolates to the antibiotics was 25% in both amoxacillin and sparfloxacin. This preliminary investigation suggests that there may be possible distribution of multidrug resistant Salmonella strain (MDRSS) in this environment. Also the recommended drugs to be used are ciprofloxacin, gentamincin and augmetin. Also periodic antibiotic susceptibility pattern should be done to curtail further emergence of MDRSS. Thus this research can serve as a guide since there is no documented data on antibiotic profile of salmonella in this study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Serotype Distribution of Plasmid-encoded Virulence Profiles, and Identification of espP and subAB Alleles in Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli

A. Mariel Sanso, Ana V. Bustamante, Tomás Franci, Juliana González, Jimena S. Cadona, Paula M. A. Lucchesi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 396-404
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/13905

Aims: This study was designed to characterize verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC), important food-borne pathogens, in relation to virulence genes found in large plasmids harboured by disease-associated strains. Our aim was to detect these genes and possible combinations of them, and to establish if some kind of relationship exists between these profiles and different serotypes.
Study Design: Amplification of genes and allelic variants by PCR.
Place and Duration of Study: Laboratorio de Inmunoquímica y Biotecnología (FCV-UNCPBA, Argentina), between June 2010 and July 2013.
Methodology: 208 VTEC isolates belonging to 49 serotypes were characterized for the presence of plasmid-encoded genes: epeA (serine-protease), espP (extracellular serine protease) and its variants, katP (periplasmic catalase-peroxidase), stcE (zinc metalloprotease) and subA (subtilase cytotoxin) and its variants.
Results: The most frequently detected gene was espP (87%), followed by ehxA (47%), saa (20%) and katP(17%), whereas epeA, subA and stcE ranged from 7 to 12%. Taking into account these genes, twelve profiles were observed, ranging from the presence of zero to five of the genes. Some serotypes presented only one plasmid profile whereas others, such as O20:H19, showed up to four different profiles. Functional differences have been previously found among EspP subtypes, and we found that several VTEC isolated from bovines or foods contained the espPα, which is one of the alleles possibly associated with severe human disease. Considering subtilase cytotoxin gene subtypes, only subAB1 was identified.
Conclusion: Our results show that VTEC strains can possess different combinations of plasmid-encoded virulence genes and even strains belonging to the same serotype can differ in relation to their plasmid genetic composition. In relation to allelic variants, LEE-positive serotypes showed for espP gene the allele α or the γ, and the detected subAB allele differed from the prevalent allelic variant subAB2 carried by strains circulating in sheeps and humans in European countries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Food Contaminating Bacteria Isolates from Food Stall Vegetables

Ali Ramadan Ali ALatawi, Sutarno ., Ari Susilowati, Hailu Weldekiros Hailu

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 405-411
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/13792

Today the issue of food safety is global problem that gets main concern in setting public health policy. The eruption of diseases caused by food contamination occurs in places where sanitation and hygiene conditions are generally poor. Reliable identification of bacteria remains to be an important task in food microbiology. Molecular procedures are the most efficient tools of microbial characterization. The objectives of this research were: To identify food contaminating bacteria from vegetable sample taken from food stall using biochemical tests; And to conduct molecular characterization of food contaminated bacteria isolated from vegetable sample in food stall. Six different (pair of cooked and uncooked) vegetable samples were isolated from three food stalls at Solo, Indonesia. Biochemical tests for glucose, lactose, mannitol, maltose, sucrose, SIM (H2S, Indole, and motility), Simmon's Citrate; Methyl Red and Voges Proskauer was conducted. 16S rRNA characterization and DNA sequence analysis was done. Both the biochemical and molecular characterization revealed that the dominant bacteria contaminants in the food stall vegetable samples were: 24 isolates of Klebsiella Spp, 3 isolates of Pseudomonas aeroginosa, 2 isolates of Aeromonas caviae and 6 isolates of Enterobacter asburiae. Only one out of 36 samples was uncontaminated with bacteria. In conclusion most of the bacteria studied were pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, to prevent food borne disease, attention should be given on hygiene and food handling in food stalls vegetables.

Open Access Original Research Article

Virulence Profile, Fluoroquinolone and Quinolone Resistance of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates Recovered from Thabet Hospital-Tulkarm, Palestine

Ghaleb Adwan, Buthainah Issa, Kamel Adwan

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 412-423
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/14293

Backcground: Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI). Virulence factors are mainly responsible for the severity of these emerging infections.
Aims: To analyze virulence factors and resistance phenotype to quinolones and fluoroquinolones in a collection of E. coli strains isolated from UTIs with previously known phylogenetic groups.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biology and Biotechnology, An-Najah N. University, Palestine, during May-December 2012.
Methodology: Fifty clinical E. coli isolates were previously recovered from urine specimens obtained from patients suffered from urinary tract infections at Thabet Hospital, Tulkarm-Palestine. Multiplex PCR technique was used to detect the presence of 18 virulence genes and ERIC-PCR was used to detect the heterogeneity of these strains. All E. coli isolates were examined for resistance to different antibiotics using disk diffusion method.
Results: It is found that the prevalence of virulence genes ranged from 0% for P-fimbria adhesion variant 1 (pap G I) allele and α- hemolysin (hly A) to 86% for Type1 fimbriae adhesion (fim H) and Serum resistance-associated gene (tra T) in strains tested. The results showed that the mean virulence score for group D was 8.2 and ranged from 2 to15, while for group A was 6.2 and ranged from 1 to14 (P=6.2 x 10-4). The mean virulence score for strains resistant to fluoroquinolones and /or quinolones was 7.3, while for strains sensitive to both fluoroquinolones and quinolones was 8.1. Quinolones and/or fluoquinolones sensitive strains related to group D showed an increased prevalence of catecholate siderophore receptor (iron) than resistant strains. It was also found that traT gene was the most common prevalence among strains resistant to nalidixic acid, fluoroquinolones and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole and it was 90.1% (30/33), 95.8 (23/24) and 90.6% (29/32), respectively. ERIC-PCR revealed that the 50 isolates were genetically diverse and comprised a heterogeneous population with at total 10 ERIC-PCR profiles at a 50% similarity level.
Conclusion: The molecular analysis of strains belonged to groups A and D, results showed that group D had higher mean virulence score than group A. It seems that there is no single virulence factor or virulence profile that is entirely specific to UTI in general.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potential Spread of Pathogens by Consumption of Locally Produced Zobo and Soya Milk Drinks in Awka Metropolis, Nigeria

Linda Anagu, Emeka Okolocha, Moses Ikegbunam, Malachy Ugwu, Angus Oli, Charles Esimone

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 424-431
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/8486

Aims: To determine the presence of resistant pathogens in locally produced drinks consumed in Akwa, Nigeria.
Study Design: To determine type of bacteria contaminants, level of contamination from and presence of resistant pathogens in the drinks.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the department of Pharmaceutical microbiology and Biotechnology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, between May 2012 and June 2012.
Methodology: 10 each of locally prepared Zobo and Soya drinks were purchased in Akwa city and analysed using standard microbiological procedures.
Results: The microbial quality of the Zobo drinks is good but its safety is questionable as it contains indicator organisms like Escherichia coli (10%), Bacillus cereus (80%), Staphylococcus aureus (50%),Corynebacterium spp. (10%) and Clostridium spp. (10%). 40 % of the soya milk drink had an unsatisfactory microbial quality and 50 % are unsuitable for consumption as they contain E. coli and S. aureus. The antibiogram showed that most strains of the isolated organisms were susceptible to all the antibiotics with each organism having almost 100 % susceptibility. However, Clostridium spp. were completely resistant to amoxicillin and Corynebacterium spp. were completely resistant to Rifampicin. Also one strain of E. coli was multi-drug resistant.
Conclusion: The bacterial spectrum isolated from the locally prepared drinks is indicative of exogenous contamination which could cause food poisoning and lead to the spread of bacteria resistance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Shewanella putrefaciens from Clinical Specimens and Environmental Samples. Biofilm Formation & Eradication

Hadeel T. AL-Hadithi, Saad A. Attia

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 432-440
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/13655

Aims: To investigate occurrence of Shewanella putrefaciens in clinical and environmental sources, to determine antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of isolates and to determine the efficacy of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and lesser concentrations of the most effective antibiotic and the most commonly used biocides in Iraqi hospitals: Povidone–iodine and Sapton, to inhibit or eradicate biofilms produced by recovering isolates.
Methodology: Three hundred and twenty samples collected from clinical specimens (n=173) and environmental sources (n=320) at Thi Qar General Hospital / Iraq were processed by standard tech-niques to isolate and identify S. putrefaciens. Antimicrobial sensitivity toward eight antibiotics was de¬termined. Adhesion and biofilm formation assays were performed by recovered strains grown artificially in 96-well microtiter plates and measured spectrophotometrically. Minimum inhibition concentration and lesser concentrations of ciprofloxacin and the biocides: Povidone – iodine and Sapton for inhibition or eradication of biofilm were investigated.
Results: Eleven S. putrefaciens isolates (3.4%) were identified from clinical (5 isolates, 2.9%) and environmental (6 isolates, 4%) sources. Multiresistant isolates were evident, though ciprofloxacin was the only antibiotic effective against all isolates. Ear isolate demonstrated the highest degree of attachment followed by that of sewage isolate. Bacterial ability to produce biofilm was reduced up to 42.7%, 56.9% and 64.4% of the total biomass when exposed to 1/4MIC, 1/2MIC and MIC respectively. Biofilm formation was reduced up to 65.8 % and 48.7% of total biomass by exposing to Povidone-Iodine and Sapton respectively.
Conclusion: The penetration ability and the removal and killing efficacies of ciprofloxacin and the two biocides against biofilms formed in microtiter plates by S. putrefaciens although evident, but none of the above antimicrobial agents led to the total biofilm removal and/or killing. Hence, multidrug resistant S. putrefaciens have a tremendous challenge accompanied with the formation and persistence of bacterial biofilms particularly when adhere to medical devices or damaged tissue can become the cause of persistent infections.