Aims: Microorganisms in milk and milk products are considered to pose certain hygienic risks for human health. The study aim was to assess the microbial load of cows’ milk from free-grazing cattle and local cheeses (wara) produced from milk.
Study Design: Samples of milk and soft cheese (wara) were randomly collected from farms within Oyo and Ogun states.
Place and Duration of Study: Milk samples were collected from Fulani herdsmen in Oyo and Ogun states during the summer months of May and June, 2012.
Methodology: One hundred and twenty-one samples of cows’ milk were collected from local Fulani herdsmen in Abeokuta and Ibadan, cities south west of Nigeria. Local cheeses called wara, processed by the wives of the pastoralists were obtained for pH and microbial analysis using standard microbiological techniques such as total aerobic count, Staphylococcus aureus count, Enterobacteriaceae count and fungal counts.
Results: pH of milk and wara were 5.8 - 6.8 and 5.0 - 6.5. Total viable count of bacteria in milk and wara were 2 x 102 - 2.6 x 107 and 3.3 x103 - 3 x 107cfu/ml. Fourteen samples had no coliforms. Coliform positive samples were 20 cfu - 3 x 107 and 5.5 x 102- 2.5 x 106 for milk and wara. Sixteen samples had no Staphylococcus aureus while positive samples had 21 cfu – 3 x 107 and 1000cfu – 6.4 x 106 for milk and wara respectively. 26 samples had no fungal growth. Fungal positive samples had2.6 x 102 -5.7 x 106cfu/ml and 4 x 104 - 4.3 x 106 for milk and wara. Aflatoxin M1 in positive samples range between 3000 – 7000 ng/L.
Conclusion: Results indicated that some of the milk and wara samples were low in microbiological quality. Routine surveillance test and basic education is recommended for herdsmen and their wives to avoid possible food-borne illness.
Aims: The study was conducted between October 2012 and May, 2013 with the aim of determining the effect of Lambda-cyhalothrin treated blinds on control of malaria infection. 400 blood samples were collected from 106 households.
Study Design: It is an experimental study involving both intervention and control groups.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Malete community in Moro Local Government Area of Kwara State, North central part of Nigeria between October 2012 and May 2013.
Methods: The study was divided into three phases namely: Pre-intervention, intervention and post intervention. In pre-intervention, 200 blood samples were taken and stained using Giemsa techniques to determine the baseline malaria infection. At intervention stage, windows and doors blinds were treated with lambda-cyhalothrin and in post–intervention another 200 blood samples were taken after treatment and were stained using Giemsa techniques.
Results: On the overall pre-intervention of malaria parasite was 12.5% and after intervention it reduced to 8.0%. Out of entire infection rate, 2.5% was documented among students residing in the western location, 4.5% in the central area while 5.5% was recorded in the eastern part of the study area. Similarly students within the age bracket 18-22 years recorded the highest rate (14.5%) of asymptomatic malaria infection followed by those within 23-27 years and >27 years with 12.4% and 8.6% rates respectively. Statistically, there was no significant difference in the distribution of malaria infection in the study area with respect to age (X2=1.743, P=0.08).Statistical analysis by Chi-square showed a significant difference in frequency of malaria infection among asymptomatic male and female subjects (X2=5.743, P=0.04). Statistical analysis by student T-test showed no significant difference in the prevalence of malaria infection before and after intervention (t=0.3310, P=0.07).
Conclusion: Lambda-cyhalothrin used in this trial study shows a promising future against malaria vector, most of the blinds treated were made of cotton material because it was the common material among the inhabitants sampled. Further studies are therefore suggested to investigate the effect of other clothing materials such as nylon and polyester on malaria infection after treatment with the same chemical.
Aims: To identify the Candida species that cause vulvovaginal candidiasis and determine their antifungal susceptibility patterns.
Study Design: This was a cross-sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the antenatal clinic of Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital in Mbarara Municipality, between December 2012 and February 2013.
Methods: High vaginal swabs from 456 pregnant women were subjected to microscopy and culture on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar. Candida isolates were identified by the germ tube and Analytical profile index (API® Candida) tests. Susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole was determined by the Etest strips and for clotrimazole and nystatin by the disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar supplemented with 2%w/v glucose and 0.5µg/ml methylene blue dye.
Results: Of the 456 High vaginal swabs cultured, 207 grew Candida species. Species distribution was as follows: C. albicans (78.95%), C. glabrata (14.35%), C. krusei (3.35%), C. tropicalis (1.44%), C. famata (0.96%), C. parapsilosis (0.48%) and C. lusitaniae (0.48%).
Resistance to nystatin was only observed in 0.61% of C.albicans. Resistance to clotrimazole was observed in 50%, 36.67% and 0.61% of C. famata, C. glabrata and C. albicans respectively. C. krusei showed a high resistance of 71.43% to fluconazole. C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. famata and C. lusitaniae exhibited 100% resistance to itraconazole. Resistance to voriconazole of less than 11% was exhibited by only C. albicans and C. glabrata.
Conclusion: C.albicans was susceptible to most antifungal agents tested except itraconazole and voriconazole. All isolates were susceptible to nystatin except less than 1% of Candida albicans. Non-albicans demonstrated resistance to some drugs especially itraconazole. We recommend use of Nystatin for empirical management of vulvovaginal candidiasis among pregnant women.
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of sulphur-based amino acids with or without formic acid on performance and microbial load of broiler chickens in a 56-day feeding trial. One hundred and ninety-two one-day old unsexed Arbor Acre broilers were used. The birds were brooded for 7 days after which they were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments with 4 replicates of 12 birds each. The experimental treatments were: Diet 1: Basal diet + DL-methionine without formic acid, diet 2: Basal diet + DL-methionine with 0.8% formic acid, diet 3: Basal diet + methionine hydroxyl analogue without formic acid, diet 4: Basal diet + methionine hydroxyl analogue with formic acid. The design of the experiment was a completely randomised design in a 2X2 factorial arrangement. Dietary treatments had no significant influence on the feed intake (FI) pattern of the birds. However, the inclusion of formic acid and the sulphur amino acid sources significantly affected body weight gain (WG) and feed conversion (FCR). Birds fed with diet 2 had significantly (P<0.05) improved WG (3.16kg/bird) and FCR (1.42) compared with birds fed with the other diets with values ranging from 2.28 to 2.64kg/bird. The microbial load of the digesta from selected segments of the gastrointestinal tract (i.e. duodenum and ileum) were also significantly (P<0.05) affected by the dietary treatments. The total bacteria count and coliform count were significantly (P<0.05) reduced with formic acid supplementation (1.60 to 6.26 logCFU/ml digesta) relative to the total bacteria and coliform count observed in the digesta of birds fed diets without formic acid supplementation (12.60 to 33.20 logCFU/ml digesta). Formic acid supplementation had positive effect on body weight gain and microbial population of the experimental birds.
Aim: To genetically characterize rhizobia collected from the root nodules of Horse gram plants grown in different soil samples by using the methods RAPD and RFLP.
Place and Duration of Study: Root nodules were collected from the plants grown in soil samples collected from different regions in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states, India.
Methodology: These isolates were characterized by two RAPD primers RPO4 and RPO5 of 10 nucleotide length. The PCR amplicons were purified by Qiaquick® PCR purification kit and digested by three restriction endonucleases i.e., TaqI, HpaII and AluI.
Results: The RAPD profiles and restriction analysis of 16S rRNA gene with the three endonucleases showed high polymorphism. RAPD and RFLP analysis of these 32 horse gram rhizobia showed that these isolates fall into four major clusters. The first clusters of both dendrograms from RAPD and RFLP contained the majority of the rhizobial isolates.
Conclusion: From this, it is clear that RAPD and RFLP may play an important role if applied, to know the genetic diversity of rhizobia. High genetic diversity was observed among the horse gram rhizobial population and very few of the bacteria were considered to be identical. It clearly shows that the horse gram rhizobia are phylogenetically distinct.
Aim: To study the emergence of the community-acquire CTX-M beta-lactamase genes among the residents in Abeokuta, Nigeria.
Study Design: To determine the prevalence rate of CTX-M beta-lactamase genes in enteric multi-resistant ESBL isolates found among the Abeokuta residents.
Place of Study: Abeokuta, Nigeria between August 2010 and March 2013.
Methodology: Beta-lactamase and ESBL producing enteric bacteria were identified and their antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against commonly used antibiotics. Mating activity of the isolates was evaluated and their plasmid was profiled while a CTX-M chromosomal gene was assayed by PCR.
Results: Of the 27.4% beta-lactamase producers obtained, only 5.1% of the strains were ESBL and 2.8% harboured blaCTX-M genes. High resistance rate of 91.0% by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca to commonly used antibiotics was observed.
Conclusion: There is urgent need to curb the community spread of undetected mobile genetic elements of CTX-M-encoded enteric bacteria among the residents in this community and if this persists, a possible outbreak of enteric infection caused by resistant organisms is eminent.
Aims: The aim of the study is to isolate moulds from spoilt samples of three fermented cereal foods (ogi, eko, pap) and screen the mould for amylase production.
Study Design: Primary screening for amylase production by the mould isolates was determined on starch agar. Isolates having the widest zones of hydrolysis were further screened by Solid state fermentation [SSF]
Methodology: Molds were isolated on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar [SDA] incubated at 28°C±2°C for 72h and identified by standard microbiological methods. Screening of moulds for amylase activity was determined on starch agar medium and flooed with gram’s iodine. The isolates were screened quantitatively for the production of α-amylase and glucoamylase using Solid state fermentation [SSF] while the enzyme activities were determined spectrophotometrically.
Results: Mean mould population observed on the spoilt food samples ranged from 5.06 log cfu/g for ogi to 5.80 log cfu/g for eko wrapped in leaves. Twenty seven moulds isolated from the samples were identified as Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium citrinum and Rhizopus stolonifer. Majority (70.4%) of the isolated mould produced amylase on starch agar indicated by clear zones around the colonies. Diameter of the zone of hydrolysis ranged from 3.0 mm for Aspergillus niger EL4 to 22.0 mm for Aspergillus flavus OG1. The highest amylase activity was 30.8% from A. flavus OGI while the least was 21.2% from A. flavus EN4. Glucoamylase activities observed were between 100 U/ml and 240 U/ml. respectively.
Conclusion: This study contributes to catalogued local fungal isolates that can be used for amylase production and provides additional information to support future research about the industrial enzymes potential of these microorganisms. More work is however needed to determine the optimal production conditions of the enzymes.
Aims: Growing incidences of the pathogens producing Metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) has been observed in many countries including India. They are carbapenemases that are capable of hydrolysing carbapenems that are often considered as a last resort antibiotic, for infections caused by multiple drug resistant bacteria. The objective of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) and other MBL producers among 747 uropathogens collected from Mumbai city.
Place and Duration of Study: The current study was carried out at Department of Microbiology, Wilson College, Mumbai 400007 between September 2011- January 2014.
Methodology: The screening of MBL producers was done using phenotypic detection tests such as antimicrobial susceptibility test, Modified Hodge Test and MBL E-Test. Molecular characterization of the test isolates was carried out using Molecular tests like Polymerase chain reaction and Restriction enzyme digestion.
Results: In the current study, 49 MBL producers were obtained, all of which harboured a plasmid of approximately 50 kb size. Polymerase chain reaction showed the presence of blaNDM-1 in 43/49, blaVIM-1 in 3/49, and blaIMP gene in 3/49 MBL producers. Co-production of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase namely, blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes were also observed among 25/49 MBL producers. Determination of Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) showed only 35/49 MBL producers to be resistant to meropenem, indicating difficulty in routine MBL detection where it is generally carried out as a screening step. Plasmid borne resistance of MBL producers was confirmed by plasmid loss studies. Restriction enzyme analysis carried out with the help of Eco RI, Bam HI and HindIII revealed different band patterns among MBL producers, indicating clonal unrelatedness and more than one source of origin for spread of antibiotic resistance.
Conclusion: The current study may serve as a basis for better understanding of the resistance patterns of MBL producers, and thus restrict the spread of drug resistance.
Aim: To study prevalence of the different strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) circulating among sick poultry flocks, NDV detected from disease outbreaks in Nsukka-Nigeria were characterized into the three main NDV strains.
Materials and Methods: NDV was detected from 63 cases of poultry disease that manifested clinical signs and lesions suggestive of Newcastle disease (ND), by the haemagglutination test. The detected NDV samples were characterized by a combination of their ability to agglutinate mammalian erythrocytes and their erythrocyte elution time (EET).
Results: Fifty three out of 63 (84%) NDV samples detected from the ND cases belonged to Lentogenic strains while 10 (16%) were Mesogenic strains. None was of the Velogenic strains.
Conclusion: Rates of circulation of Lentogenic, Mesogenic and Velogenic NDV strains among sick poultry flocks in Nsukka- Nigeria suggest that the practice of using live NDV vaccines for prophylaxis may be an important factor in epizootiology of Newcastle disease in the country.
Aims: This review article analyze the data based on antibiotic producing bacteria isolated from different poles of marine environment globally and further more their antibiotic potential against different pathogenic microbes.
Microorganisms are potential source of metabolites with useful antimicrobial, antiviral and anticancer properties. Especially microbes of different environment show versatility in antibiotic producing ability. Thus there is always a need for exploring new microbes for promising antibiotic producing ability with an alternative mode of action and new chemical structures. Bacterial pathogens are gradually becoming more resistant to conventional antibiotics. So these resistance bacterial pathogens generating an emergence of infectious diseases and they are becoming a great problem in the field of public health.
Conclusion: Marine bacteria can be proved a source of novel antibiotics against many resistant pathogens.