Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a major problem and plays a vital role in nosocomial infections. Management of MRSA infection becomes cumbersome in healthcare settings due to its extension of resistance towards much class of antibiotics and it is purely based on antibiotic susceptibility. Nasal carriage of MRSA is a recognized risk factor for subsequent endogenous infection. We hereby report a case of MRSA infection in burns patient of endogenous origin and recovered by antibiotic therapy with 2% mupirocin. MRSA is frequent confront in the burn’s ward where the patients have more colonized and infected than other group of patients. Disturbances in the skin barrier and immunological variations are recorded among burn patients. Surveillance of microbial entities, its epidemiology and following the strict infection control practices lessen the frequency of such infection but very dangerous to control the outbreak situations
Aim: This study aimed at describing the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of S. aureus isolated from clinical samples at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital from 2003 to 2012.
Methods: This was a retrospective study that included clinical specimens cultured at the Microbiology laboratory of Mbarara Regional referral hospital between 2003 and 2012. Cultures and sensitivity data were abstracted from the laboratory registers using a data abstraction form. Among the positive culture reports, the antibiotic sensitivity of the common bacteria isolated were also recorded. Analysis of susceptibility data was limited to Staphylococcus aureus, the commonest organism identified. The data were entered into Epi info and exported to Stata Version 12.1 for analysis.
Results: A total of 36,080 cultures were performed over a period of 10 years. Of these 7,744 (21.5%) specimens grew an organism. S. aureus was the most prevalent organism isolated. Fifty nine percent of the S. aureus was isolated from blood samples followed by 22% from pus samples, urine (8%) and HVS (5%). During the study period, resistance of S.aureus to chloramphenicol, amoxycillin, penicillin, tetracycline, and cotrimoxazole ranged from 50-90% while S. aureus resistance to Gentamicin and ceftriaxone ranged from 10-20%.
Conclusion: Over the last decade, S. aureus isolates showed up to 90% resistance to commonly prescribed oral antibiotics. We recommend regular review of antibiotic resistance patterns to inform hospitals’ on guidelines on empirical antibiotic prescription, especially in resource-limited settings where susceptibility testing may not be feasible.
The increase on the worldwide influx of solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-B) has inflicted a considerable challenge, due to its deleterious effects to live beings and pose a special threat to phyllosphere communities. However, UV-B influence on epiphytic yeasts associated with agricultural crops remains limited. Main aim of the present study was to determine the effect of ultraviolet-B radiation on the epiphytic yeast populations associated with strawberry under field conditions. Thus, strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne cv. Oso Grande) were grown under three different treatments: a) environmental UV-B, b) enhanced UV-B and c) decreased UV-B; thereafter, their yeast epiphytic populations were analyzed by T-RFLP prior to yeast isolation, identification and in vitro test for the sensitivity against UV-B. Our results demonstrated that UV-B radiation did not significantly affect the strawberry epiphytic yeast populations. However, isolates directly exposed to radiation, generally revealed morphological abnormalities and a diminishing value in the percentage of survival, although they remained constant after 240 min of exposure. The increase in UV-B radiation was not sufficient to affect the dynamics and composition of epiphytic yeast communities from strawberry, there was a clear morphotype shift towards the selection of pigmented isolates.
A total of 104 actinomycete isolates were recovered from farming soil samples collected from 11 states in Sudan. Upon screening for potential antifungal activity, an actinomycete isolate (R92) was found to be highly antagonistic against all of the tested phytopathogenic fungi. It was identified as Streptomyces rochei on the basis of its morphology, chemotaxonomy and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. In vivo antagonistic activities of the n-butanol extract of R92 culture were significant since the progress of Drechslera halodes leaf spot on sorghum and Alternaria alternata early blight on tomato was highly restricted and incidence of both diseases was greatly suppressed. Trials to evaluate the Invivo control efficacy of this extract under field conditions is recommended.
Aim: To determine the level of inhibition of microbial functional group activities such as the ability to reduce sulfate to sulfide by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), reduce nitrate to nitrite by the heterotrophic nitrate reducing bacteria (hNRB), and oxidize sulfide and reduce nitrate by sulfide oxidizing, nitrate reducing bacteria (so-NRB) by some oxidizing biocides like chlorine, bromine and ozone.
Methodology: Samples of the oxidizing biocides were obtained from Microcheck and the inhibition of some functional group activities in produced and injection water samples were determined using CSB-K medium.
Results: Ozone was found to be more effective than chlorine and bromine in the inhibition of functional group activities at lower concentrations.
Conclusion: More research effort is required to see if ozone can work in synergy with other biocides to improve on its efficiency
Aim: The study aimed at purification and characterization of β-mannanase from Penicillium italicum.
Study Design: The first experiment, β-mannanase from Penicillium italicum was produced in basal medium supplemented with Locust Bean Gum (LBG). The second described the purification of crude β-mannanase, while the third experiment dealt with characterization and kinetic studies of purified β-mannanase from Penicillium italicum.
Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Research Laboratory, Federal University of Technology, Akure Nigeria between July and August 2012.
Methodology: β-mannanase from Penicillium italicum was produced in basal medium supplemented with LBG. The enzyme was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sephadex A-50) and gel filtration (Sephadex G-150). The purified enzyme was characterized to determine its optimal conditions by standard assay procedures. The kinetic parameters of the purified enzyme were determined by Lineweaver-Bulk plot.
Results: Fractionation of ammonium sulphate precipitated β-mannanase from Penicillium italicum on sephadex A-50 produced one major activity peak. Further fractionation of partially purified enzyme from ion exchange on Sephadex G-150 yielded one activity peak. A pH of 5.0 was optimum for purified enzyme activity and relatively stable between 40 to 100 min of incubation at this pH. The optimum temperature was 70ºC and 100% thermostable for 40 min after which a slight decline in activity was observed. The apparent Km for the hydrolysis of LBG from Lineweaver-Bulk plot was approximately 0.26 mg/mL, while the Vmax was 0.12 μmol/min/mL. The incubation of salts and organic compounds at 10 mM and 40 mM caused inhibition of enzyme activity. At 20 mM, enzyme activity was enhanced by FeSO4.7H2O, SDS and ZnSO4. 7H2O, while others caused inhibition of enzyme activity. The incubation of enzyme with CaCl2 and FeSO4.7H2O at 60 mM enhanced enzyme activity, while others caused inhibition.
Conclusion: The result obtained from this study revealed that purified β-mannanase is active over a wide pH and temperature, and its stability implies that the enzyme will be useful during industrial processes where extreme conditions are required.
Aim: To determine the impacts of some non-oxidizing biocides such as glutaradehyde, sodium azide, isothiazolone on the functional group activities of some oil field microorganisms
Methodology: Samples of non-oxidizing biocides were obtained from Microcheck and the inhibition of some functional group activities in produced and injection water samples were determined using CSB-K medium.
Results: Glutaradehyde and sodium azide exhibited relatively high level inhibition while isothiazolones exhibited low level inhibition. Glutaradehyde further demonstrated a positive selective inhibitory activity. While SRB activities were inhibited by over 78%, that of hNRB and so-NRB were affected by less than 38%.
Conclusion: Glutaradehyde can be developed to an efficient biocide with a positive selective action and can work in synergy with beneficial microbes to eliminate the problem causing ones
Aims: To study the clinical and epidemiological features in the affected individuals from different areas of Kerala, India.
Study design: Population based cross sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: Regional Facility for Molecular Diagnostics, Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology and Directorate of Health Services, Kerala, between August 2009 and September 2010.
Methodology: We conducted active surveillance for referral hospitals with specialist in-patient care in Kerala during pandemic periods. Oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal swabs were tested for influenza viruses by Real time reverse transcriptase PCR.
Results: A total of 4252 samples were tested for H1N1 influenza virus, of which, 30.17% were positive for pandemic influenza A H1N1 and 10.49% were positive for Influenza A (seasonal flu). Severe disease and mortality in the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 infection predominantly affected relatively healthy adolescents and adults between the age of 10 and 50 years. Both Males (29.28%) and Females (31.15%) were equally effected even though we observed a significant difference (P=.02). 141 cases exhibited lower respiratory tract symptoms. Pneumonia alone accounted for 28% of complicated cases. It was observed that the majority of cases (29.28%) during the first outbreak season were imported from affected overseas regions.
Conclusion: In this study, prevalence of Influenza A H1N1 was high in the healthy younger population and there wasn’t any sex related susceptibility for Influenza infection. Majority of districts showed a positivity of approximately 10-30%, few with high positivity of >30%. Our findings highlight the importance of regular influenza immunization as it is significant to understand that the H1N1 (2009) virus may still circulate for many years with similar high severity.
Aims: This study was carried out to screen bacterial strains of agricultural wastes origin for β-mannanase production and optimization of culture conditions.
Study Design: The first experiment, bacterial strains were screened for β-mannanase production. In the second experiment, the best incubation time was determined. In the third experiment, different agricultural wastes were screened. In the fourth experiment, different nitrogen sources were screened. In the fifth and sixth experiments described the effect of different pH values and incubation temperatures on β-mannanase production. The best moisture content was determined in the seventh experiment, while in experiment eight; effect of different inoculum concentrations was evaluated.
Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Research Laboratory, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria between September 2011 and March 2012.
Methodology: Bacterial strains were screened and β-mannanase production from optimization studies was conducted on Locust Bean Gum. Enzyme activity was determined by dinitrosalicylic acid method.
Results: Out of the sixteen bacterial strains screened, Klebsiella edwardsii designated 1A was selected as the most potent in producing enzyme of high activity and it was therefore selected for further studies. Pineapple peels were found to be the most effective carbon source with a highest β-mannanase activity of 8.533±0.08U/ml. Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) was obtained to be the best nitrogen source out of all the nitrogen sources screened. The best moisture content was obtained at 1:11 (ratio of substrate to salt solution). Inoculum concentration of 1.0% (v/v) yielded highest β-mannanase activity of 15.833±0.01U/ml. Addition of simple carbon sources to medium containing LBG caused a catabolic repression of β-mannanase synthesis.
Conclusion: The optimal culture conditions obtained from this study will help to standardize the requirements for optimum β-mannanase production using cheaper substrates.
Aim: To determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital.
Method: A total of 400 S. aureus isolates recovered from various clinical specimens at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital were included in this study. Phenotypic screening was performed using Oxacillin. Presence of mecA gene was studied using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The mecA positive isolates were tested for susceptibility to, Vancomycin, Imipenem, Fusidic acid, Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole, Clindamycin and Linezolid using the Kirby Bauer technique.
Results: Of the 300 isolates of S. aureus 31.3% (94) were phenotypically MRSA and 38% (114) had the mecA gene. All the MRSA isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid but were highly resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (70.2%). Of the 114 MRSA isolates 19.3% (22) were multi-drug resistant S. aureus (MDR-MRSA). The study found that there was a significant difference between genotypic and phenotypic detection methods (p < 0.001).
Conclusion: The prevalence of MRSA in Mbarara is high (38%) with a high resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The detection of mecA gene is a good predictor of methicillin resistance in S. aureus. There is a worrying prevalence of MDR MRSA among the clinical isolates of S. aureus in South Western Uganda.