Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Evaluation of Antifungal Activity of Virgin Coconut oil and White Palm Kernel Oil on Candida Species-Experimental Study

Hortense Gonsu Kamga, Sarah Riwom Essama, Yves Le Grand Napa Tchuedji, Maurice Boda, Stève Henri Voundi Olugu, Patrick Betote Diboue, Emilia Lyonga Mbamyah, William Abange Baiye, Anicette Chafa Betbeui, Francis Ekwin, Francois-Xavier Etoa

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v27i230092

Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate in vitro the antifungal activity of virgin coconut oil and the white palm kernel oil on the growth of six species of the genus Candida.

Study Design: This study is an experimental study.

Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Microbiology, Laboratory of Microbiology of the University of Yaoundé I. Laboratory of Bacteriology, Yaoundé University teaching Hospital between April to September 2017.

Methodology: We included six species of Candida. The method of diffusion discs in agar medium was used for Sensitivity tests and macro-dilution in liquid medium was used for dilution.

Results: Majority of the species tested were resistant to conventional antifungals used. Candida hoemulonii was the most sensitive species to virgin coconut oil with percentages of inhibitions higher than 50 % when the concentration of oil was only 3.125 mg/mL and a maximum inhibition percentage of 90.10 % when the concentration of oil was 100 mg/mL. Candida albicans, was the least susceptible species to virgin coconut oil with a maximum inhibition percentage of 59.85 % when the concentration of oil was 100 mg/mL.  Candida lipolytica was the most sensitive specie to white palm kernel oil with a maximum inhibition percentage of 90,26 % when the concentration of oil was 100 mg/mL and Candida parapsilosis was the least susceptible species to white palm kernel oil with a maximum inhibition percentage of 52,69 % at the same concentration. In addition, the white palm kernel oil which was more active (P˂0.05) than virgin coconut oil was introduced in the Sabouraud broth and the MIC and MFC obtained with Fluconazole was lower on Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis compared to activity of Fluconazole without palm kernel oil in the medium. Nystatin showed also lower MIC and MFC values on Candida parapsilosis when palm kernel oil was present in the culture medium.

Conclusion: These results prove that these oils can be used to develop antifungals drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antifungal Effects of Methanolic Extract of Stem Bark of Bridelia ferruginea Benth. Leaves of Aloe vera L. and Stem Bark of Alstonia boonei De Wild

E. D. Fagbohun, A. M. Bamikole

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v27i230094

The antifungal activities, proximate and phytochemical constituents of Aloe vera leaves extract, stem barks of both Alstonia boonei and Bridelia ferruginea were investigated. The methanolic crude extracts of these plants parts were tested for antifungal activity at different concentrations of 50.0, 100.0, 150.0, 200.0 mg/mL, respectively against against Aspergillus flavus, Absidia corymbifera and Aspergillus niger. Radial mycelial growth and dry mycelial weight methods were used to test for the extract activities against these fungi. The results of antifungal activity showed that all the plant extracts exhibited strong antifungal activities at higher concentration of 200.0 mg/mL. The phytochemical results showed that all the three medicinal plants contained steroid, flavonoid, phytate, phenol and oxalate which were known to exhibit antimicrobial properties as well as physiological activities. The proximate analyses showed that all the three medicinal plants contained appropriate amount of ashes, crude fibre and high carbohydrate content which provide energy when consumed. The results of this study showed that these plants possess some antifungal properties therefore the medicinal plants could serve as a potential source of active ingredients for the production of antifungal drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification through Culture and Molecular Methods of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter fetus in Surface Waters in Rasht

Keyvan Roshanjo, Nematallah Jonaidi Jafari, Leila Asadpour, Reza Ranjbar, Davoud Afshar, Abbas Farahani, Milad Shahsafi, Arian Rahimi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v27i230095

Backgrounds: As zoonotic infectious agents, Campylobacter spp. are important factors causing gastroenteritis in humans. Surveys show that the three strains; Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter fetus play a major role in human infections. Identification of these infectious agents is valuable for sanitary control of disease transmission through water resources.

Objectives: The aim of this study was identification and molecular diagnosis of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter fetus in surface waters in Rasht.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 45 samples of surface water in Rasht collected according to water health guidelines. After culture and biochemical tests on collected samples, detection and identification of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter fetus was done using sequence-specific amplification by Multiplex PCR. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS software.

Results: Out of 45 samples tested, 6 were positive in culture, four of which were identified as Campylobacter jejuni after biochemical tests. Using Multiplex PCR, 8 samples were positive, from which 3 were Campylobacter jejuni, 1 Campylobacter coli and 4 were positive for both Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. All the samples did not yield C. fetus.

Conclusions: Multiplex PCR is regarded a diagnostic method with higher sensitivity and specificity than compared to methods for Campylobacter. The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in surface waters in Rasht is considerable. Therefore, public health measures for the control of these organisms are recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diversity and Antibiotics Susceptibility of Bacterial Species on Hand Surfaces in Public Buses Plying Kenyatta National Hospital Route 7c in Nairobi

Samson Chebon, Jackline Chelangat Sonoiya

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v27i230096

Aims: To determine the pathogenic and the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacterial isolates on hand surfaces in public buses in Nairobi.

Study Design: A random sampling technique was utilized and targeted public buses plying Nairobi Central Business District (CBD) and Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) 7C route.

Place and Duration of Study: Bacterial isolates were obtained from hand surfaces in public buses in Nairobi during a three-month period, May-July 2015.

Methodology: A total of 30 swab samples were collected using sterile moist cotton swabs then cultured on three media including MacConkey agar, Mannitol salt agar and Eosin Methyl Blue agar (EMB). Characterization of isolates was by morphological and biochemical features. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile tests using eight antibiotics including tetracycline, sulphamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, gentamycin, ampicillin, co-trimoxazole and streptomycin was also undertaken.

Results: A total of 45 isolates indicated the following prevalence: Staphylococcus aureus 33%, Escherichia coli 24%, Staphylococcus epidermidis 18%, Klebsiella species 11% and Pseudomonas species 13%. The antimicrobial resistance profiles indicated E. coli isolates had the highest resistance to five antibiotics, Klebsiella spp. to four, Staphylococcus aureus to three, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas spp. each to only one antibiotic. Isolates were predominantly resistant to ampicillin (100%) followed by co-trimoxazole and streptomycin but were instead sensitive to gentamycin followed by tetracycline, sulphamethoxazole and chloramphenicol.

Conclusion: These findings demonstrate serious health risks posed to the community by potentially pathogenic and antibiotic resistant bacterial species on hand-touch sites in public buses. Therefore, this study creates awareness of the need for stringent sanitary measures in public buses and hygienic practices among commuters to forestall transmission of community acquired infections.

Open Access Review Article

Microbial Enzymes: Therapeutic Applications

C. V. Reshma

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v27i230093

Enzymes are biomolecules with highly specialized catalytic functions produced by all living organisms and are responsible for biochemical reactions in plants, animals, microorganisms and human beings. Nowadays enzymes are considered as core of biotechnology because they are the main tools for the application of basic biotechnological techniques, they act as the target of the therapeutic drugs and are indispensable intermediates in all biotechnological processes. The concept of the therapeutic enzymes has been around for at least 40 years. Microbial enzymes are preferred over other sources and in this review different types of microbial enzymes are discussed for their therapeutic applications.