Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Agitation Speed and Incubation Time on Amylase Production by Bacillus Species Isolated from Malted and Fermented Maize (Zea mays)

Effiom Henshaw, Sherifat M. Wakil

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v27i330097

Aims: The effect of agitation speed and incubation time on Bacillus species growth and amylase production isolated from malted and fermented maize were investigated.

Study Design: An experimental study.

Methodology: Bacillus species were screened for amylase production using starch hydrolysis method on starch agar. Bacillus sp.IBM21 was observed to exhibit highest hydrolytic activity with zone of clearance of diameter 41.6mm. Process parameters optimizations were evaluated using submerge fermentation techniques.

Results: The effect of agitation speed on growth and amylase production was varied from 100-250 rpm. It was observed that, the amylolytic Bacillus species were able to grow optimally at agitation speed of 100 rpm while their highest amylase activities were recorded at speed of 150 rpm for Bacillus sp.IBM22, 10.16Um-1 and 200 rpm for Bacillus sp.IBM21, 5.59Um-1. The effect of incubation time was varied from 12-72h, amylase activities as well as bacterial growth increases with increase in incubation time until peaks were attained at 36h (10.16Uml-1, OD540nm, 2.98) for Bacillus sp.IBM22 and 48h ( 5.5Uml-1, OD540nm 1.55) for Bacillus sp.IBM21.

Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that Bacillus species isolated from malted/fermented maize produced amylase maximally at optimal agitation speed and incubation time ranges of 150-200rpm and 36-48h respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sero-prevalence of HPV-16 IgG Antibodies and Its Association with Socio Demographic Features of Women in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria

H. A. Haruna, S. O. Olonitola, M. Aminu

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v27i330098

Aim: To determine the sero-prevalence of Human Papilloma Virus type 16(HPV-16) immunoglobulin G antibodies and its association with socio-demographic features of women attending some clinics in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria.

Study Design: Hospital based cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Kogi State specialist hospital and Federal medical Centre, Lokoja. Kogi State, Nigeria, between June and October, 2015.

Methodology: We included 400 participants (380 pregnant and 20 non pregnant women; age range 15 to 45 years) attending the hospitals during the duration of the research. Serum samples were analysed for human papilloma virus type 16 IgG using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay and questionnaire was also administered to obtain demographic features of the participants.

Results: The prevalence of human papilloma virus type 16 IgG antibodies was found to be 10%. The occurrence of IgG antibodies to human papilloma virus was found to be statistically associated with educational status and occupation (P = 0.020 and 0.036 respectively).

Conclusion: The prevalence of human papilloma virus was high. Cervical screening centres should be established in all areas of the state and awareness campaigns should be organized to afford young women the knowledge and dangers of cervical cancer and preventive measures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Crown Rot Disease of Banana Fruit and Eco-Friendly Quality Improvement Approach During Storage

Md. Saroar Jahan, Rizwoana Sharmin Lia, Md. Estiak Khan Chowdhury, Md. Faruk Hasan, Md. Asadul Islam, Biswanath Sikdar, Md. Khalekuzzaman

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v27i330099

Introduction: The banana is the world’s most popular fruit crop. A complex of fungal pathogen is responsible for crown rot diseases of banana.

Aims: The present study was designed to detect and characterize the crown rot disease of post-harvest banana (Musa paradisiaca) and also develop an alternative quality improvement approach to improve banana shelf-life during storage period.

Study Design: A simplest general factorial experiment that was designed to control crown rot disease of banana using different biological factors, including plant extract, antagonistic agents and commercial fungicide.

Place and Duration of Study: Disease infected bananas were collected from Rajshahi city, Rajshahi, Bangladesh in 2017 and the experiment had been conducted from April 2017 to April 2018.

Methodology: Different morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques were used to characterize and detect the liable fungi. Responsible fungi were subjected to antifungal activity screening test and in vitro antagonism test. Effect of carbendazim and kanamycin B against the mycelial growth of the isolates was determined by disc diffusion method. Quality parameters including disease incidence and severity, pH, TSS, TTA and AA of the treated banana were also analyzed after application of treatments in the packing stage through standard estimation techniques.

Results: Two fungi, isolated from the infected portion were further identified as C. musae and L. theobromae. D. metel and A. sativum extract was better in inhibiting mycelial growth of all the test pathogen in culture. B. cereus and T. harzianum moved and attached to fungal isolates, affecting mycelial growth and A. sativum extract significantly affecting conidial germination on artificial medium. Satisfactory mycelia inhibitory effect was recorded from kanamycin B. Quality analysis after storage of banana showed minor measurable differences among treatments.

Conclusion: Post-harvest application of A. sativum extract (Conc. 25% w/v) improve the overall quality of harvested banana fruits and reduced the disease incidence and severity of crown rot to a level significantly lower than in fungicide treated or control fruits.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Hand Hygiene Practices and the Effectiveness of Hand Sanitizers at Controlling Enteropathogens among the Residents of a University Community in Osun State Nigeria

Femi, Ayoade, Benedicta, Chidalu Nnabude, Chiagoziem Anariochi, Otuechere

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v27i330100

Aim: To explore perceptions, attitudes and hand washing practices in relation to the effectiveness of hand sanitizers in controlling enteropathogens amongst residents of a Nigerian University with the purpose of creating awareness on the importance of hand hygiene to control the spread of communicable diseases.

Study Design: A simple random cluster sampling technique was used. A questionnaire designed to relate demographic and hand hygiene practices to the effectiveness of the practices to the control of enteropathogens was applied to the respondents.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out between January and May, 2018 at the Redeemer’s University, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria.

Methodology: Sterile swabs moistened with sterile normal saline were used in sampling the palms of 50 respondents and the normal transient flora was established, samples were again taken to determine effectiveness of hand washing at reducing the bacterial load and the diversity of organisms isolated from the samples after hand washing and application of hand sanitizers. Using standard microbiological methods, serial dilutions of the swabs in normal saline were plated on Eosin Methylene Blue agar in order to isolate members of the bacterial family Enterobacteriacae. Identification was done using cultural, morphological and relevant biochemical tests. Subsequently, the results for the different treatments were compared using the Duncan’s multiple range test at p<0.05.

Results: The results showed that at least 60% of the respondents were unaware of the WHO recommended way to wash hands and 72% of these do not wash their hands before eating food or after taking care of sick people. The predominant transient hand flora in the tested population were determined to be constituted by the following bacterial species, namely, Enterobacter spp, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia pestis, Erwinia cactida, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella oxytoca. Hand washing with soap was found to be more effective at reducing these on the hands of the respondents at a degree similar to treatment with the hand sanitizer were PL® with a label claim of 70% alcohol contentand more effective than hand sanitizers CS® and GC® with 62% and 60% alcohol content respectively.

Conclusion: Hand washing with soap and water when done properly remains the most reliable means of breaking the cycle and spread of preventable enteropathogens in the community setting and it is perhaps more reliable than the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers.

Open Access Original Research Article

In Vitro Contribution of Herbal Products on the Activity of Antifungal Drugs against Clinical Candida Isolates

Yasemin Oz, Nuray Gundogdu, Muge Aslan

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v27i330101

Aims: The contribution of natural compounds may provide significant progress in the discovery of new antifungal drugs. We aimed to investigate the contribution of carvacrol, farnesol, epigallocatechin gallate, ginger, naringenin and curcumin on the activity of antifungals, voriconazole, caspofungin and amphotericin B against clinical Candida isolates.

Methodology: Eight clinical Candida isolates were included in this study. The MIC values of each herbal compound and each antifungal were determined using the reference broth microdilution method. The interactions of herbal compounds and antifungal drugs were assessed by checkerboard microdilution method. 

Results: The MIC values ranged from 60 to 160 μg/mL for carvacrol, from 16 to 64 μg/mL for epigallocatechin gallate, from 80 to 320 μg/mL for ginger and 800 μg/mL for curcumin. Any MIC value was not detected for farnesol and naringenin in concentrations tested. Although the most common interaction type was indifference, farnesol, carvacrol and ginger reduced the MICs of all three antifungals against most isolates. Voriconazole and amphotericin B MICs decreased in combinations with epigallocatechin gallate, whereas naringenin and curcumin did not show any conspicuous effect on antifungal drug activities.

Conclusion: We showed that carvacrol, epigallocatechin gallate, curcumin and ginger enhanced the activity of voriconazole, caspofungin and amphotericin B against Candida isolates in vitro. These compounds may represent novel agents to be used in combination with available antifungal drugs to lower the doses of antifungals, thus toxic side effects and treatment costs may decrease.