Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological Study of Catfish, Claria gariepinus, from Fish Pond Sources in Akungba-Akoko Community, Nigeria

A. O. Ajayi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2012/921

Aim: To determine the microbiological quality of catfish meant for public consumption in the university community, Akungba-Akoko.
Study design: Cross-sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Adekunle Ajasin University, P.M.B. 01, Akungba-Akoko, Nigeria, between May 2010 and June 2011.
Methodology: Fresh catfish, Claria gariepinus, sample obtained from typical fish pond in Akungba-Akoko was subjected to microbiological Investigation in the Laboratory. Nutrient Agar, Eosine Methylene Blue Agar and Man Rogosa Sharpe Agar were generally used for isolation and maintenance of cultures during the study. Moreover a pour plate technique was used for the estimation of the total bacterial and coliform counts.
Results: The total plate count of fish skin samples gave high bacterial count of 65 x 102 cfu/ml, the coliforms count was 7.0 x 101 cfu/ml, while the anaerobic organisms encountered gave a value of 20 x 101 cfu/ml. Similarly, bacterial count of 2.25 x 107 cfu/ml coliform count of 1.35 x 104 cfu/ml and 6.5 x 104 cfu/ml anaerobic organisms were obtained from gills. The isolated bacteria species identified were Bacillus spp, Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp, Microcococcus spp, and members of enterobacteriaceae which include Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp were found in the skin of the fresh fish. Other complex forms of bacterial species were also encountered in the gills of catfish sample used for this study. This includes S. aureus, E. coli, Bacillus spp. The total aerobic counts of the Clarias gariepinus (Catfish) sample were determined and the results of this study shows that the largest numbers of anaerobic microbes were found in gills.
Conclusion: The study suggests adequate monitoring of our fish ponds with a view of adding some antibiotics to their feeds to reduce infectious agents from this source.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Antifungal Susceptibility Patterns of Yeast Isolates at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi, Ghana

P. K. Feglo, P. Narkwa

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 10-22
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2012/861

Aims: To determine the prevalence of yeast species and their antifungal susceptibility profiles at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi.
Study Design: Cross-sectional design.
Methodology: This study was conducted in 2009 at the bacteriology laboratory at KATH, Kumasi, Ghana. In six-months, 528 clinical samples comprising 186(35%) high vaginal swabs, 109(21%) cerebrospinal fluid, 127(24%) urine and 106(20%) sputum were cultured on sabouraud dextrose agar. Yeast growths were identified by their characteristics, indian-ink staining and germ tube test and then confirmed with the API ID 32 C test kits. Antifungal susceptibility tests were performed using ATB™ FUNGUS 3 test kit.
Results: Out of 528 samples tested 67 yielded yeasts giving a prevalence of 12.7%. Candida albicans was the commonest species isolated with a prevalence of 33(49.3%) followed by Candida glabrata 12(17.9%), Candida tropicalis 8(11.9%), Candida dubliniensis 4(6%), Candida krusei 3(4.5%) and Candida sake 2(3%), whilst Candida guilliermondii and Candida parapsilosis prevalence was 1(1.5%) each and Cryptococcus neoformans prevalence was 3(4.5%). All the isolates were susceptible to flucytosine, amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole except C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. krusei all having about 79% susceptibility to flucytosine, amphotericin B, and itraconazole (MICs 0.125-8mg/l). Voriconazole was the only agent to which no resistant yeast was detected. All the Candida krusei isolated were resistant to fluconazole (MICs ≥ 64mg/l). Generally yeast resistance ranges from 4.5% to 22.2% to flucytosine, amphotericin B, fluconazole and itraconazole.
Conclusion: There were many yeast species isolated, but Candida albicans was the most common isolate obtained from all the clinical samples tested except cerebrospinal fluid from which Cryptococcus neoformans was the commonest. The overall resistance levels of the isolates ranged from 4.5% to 22.2% to flucytosine, amphotericin B, fluconazole and itraconazole. No resistant strains were detected against voriconazole. This high level of resistance (22.4%) in Ghana calls for further investigation. This is the first report on the yeast types and their antifungal susceptibility patterns in Ghana.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biotypes and Enterotoxigenicity of Staphylococci Isolated from Camel’s Meat in Jordan

Akram R. Alaboudi, Ziad W. Jaradat, Mahmoud M. Shatnawi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 23-35
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2012/1007

A total of 264 camel’s meat and nasal swab samples were collected for isolation and typing of Staphylococci from Irbid Governorate in northern Jordan. About 97 % and 85% of meat and nasal swabs samples showed typical colonies of Staphylococcus aureus on Baird-Parker agar respectively. Out of 243 presumptively identified isolates, only 74 and 64 were confirmed as S. aureus by Microbact system and PCR technique respectively. About 67% of the isolates were typable by Devriese’s scheme. Fifteen of those isolates (23%) were specifically allocated to human, bovine, ovine or abattoir where, 14% of these host specific isolates belonged to human biovar. The other 44% belonged to non-host specific biovars with majority of them were allocated to NHS1 biovar. When tested for the presence of toxin genes, 71.9% of S. aureus isolates had SE(s) genes with SEA being the most prominent at 91.3%. The study also showed that not only coagulase positive isolates contain toxin genes, coagulase negative isolates also possess toxin genes and thus are considered potential hazards in camel’s meat.

Open Access Original Research Article

A New Approach to Screening for Methionine-Producing Bacteria

U. S. Ozulu, O. U. Nwanah, C. C. Ekwealor, S. K. Dike, C. L. Nwikpo, I. A. Ekwealor

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 36-39
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2012/989

Aim: To find a method of screening for active Methionine-producing organisms.
Study Design: Examination of cross-section of soil.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria between April 2010 and August 2011.
Methodology: Bacterial isolates (200) from soil were screened for Methionine producers on solid agar medium seeded with Methionine auxotroph, Escherichia coli. The agar plates were observed for halo growth of the E. coli which indicates Methionine production by the isolate. Methionine production in submerged medium by the isolates was investigated.
Results: A total of 24 bacterial isolates were recovered as Methionine producers. Six of the active isolates used for submerged fermentation accumulated Methionine in a range of 0.46 – 1.40mg/ml. A close relationship was established between the nature of the halo growths of E. coli auxotroph on solid agar and the Methionine yields of the active bacterial isolates in submerged medium.
Conclusion: It is a new and fast approach to screening for active Methionine producers.