Eighteen Lactobacillus strains were isolated from Moroccan traditional dairy products and evaluated for their in vitro probiotic potential. The results showed that all strains tested tolerate acid gastric conditions (pH 2.0 and pH 3.0), while ten of them were bile resistant. Although no bacteriocin activity was detected in vitro assay for the ten bile resistant strains, but they showed strong antagonistic activity versus seven known food-borne pathogens bacteria. It was noted that none was haemolytic. In another hand, all these studied strains were found sensitive to kanamycin and tetracycline, and the majority of them were observed resistant only to one or two out of the antibiotics tested. Finally, four Lactobacilli strains (Lactobacillus plantarum LPL2, Lactobacillus paracasei LPAR2, Lactobacillus paracasei LPAR9 and Lactobacillus brevis LBR) were found sensitive to all antibiotics tried, and showed good hydrophobicity and adherence properties, so they could be exploited for food manufacture and scientific knowledge ends.
Different Trichoderma species were examined for their abilities to persist within the maize (Zea mays) stem at different points above and below inoculation points. Different Trichoderma species were isolated from different parts of the maize (Z. mays) plant and its rhizosphere. They were later sent to International Mycological Institute, England for identification. Maize seeds (DMR-LSRW) were planted in pots in the screenhouse. Four weeks after planting, each of the Trichoderma species was inoculated into the stems of the potted plants at the 2nd internodes using the toothpick method. Toothpicks dressed with sterile distilled water served as control. Cut sections of the inoculated stems were examined for presence or absence of the inoculated Trichoderma species at different points far from the inoculated point in the upper and lower internodes after 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks of inoculation. Ten Trichoderma species were identified; these include five strains of T. pseudokoningii, three strains of T. harzianum, T. hamatum and T. longibrachiatum. All the Trichoderma species were able to move within the stem tissues into the upper and lower internodes. All of them were re-isolated at distant points from inoculation point in the upper and lower internodes even after 6 weeks of inoculation. T. pseudokoningii strain 2 and T. harzianum strains 1 to 3 had the best endophytic movement into the upper and lower internodes. T. hamatum and T. longibrachiatum had the weakest movement into the upper and lower internodes. All the Trichoderma species could thus be said to possess the abilities to persist (endophytic capability) within the maize (Z. mays) stem. T. pseudokoningii and T. harzianum could also be said to be among the best species in the genus Trichoderma with good prospect of biocontrol potential.
Thermophilic campylobacters, including Campylobacter lari, are the most common cause of acute bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world. Although C. jejuni and C. coli account for the majority of these cases, C. lari has been described from about 30 cases in several countries over the last 20 years and this species has been shown to be a severe and potential pathogenic agent for humans, manifesting as gastroenteritis, diarrhea, septicemia and bacteremia. Campylobacter lari is most prevalently isolated from seagulls in the natural environment, followed by water and shellfish in several European countries and in one Asian country, Japan. The prevalence of poultry with C. lari has been demonstrated in Japan, the USA, England, Poland, Tanzania, Peru, Denmark, Kenya and Northern Ireland, indicating that contamination of poultry with this species is common and widespread. Moreover, C. lari has also been distributed in dogs, cats, pigs, cattle and sheep in several countries. Thus, the natural environment including wild birds and some domestic animals, mainly poultry, may be considered as important reservoirs of C. lari. This review aims at describing (i) the historical evolution of C. lari, (ii) its reservoirs for human infection, including the natural environment and zoonotic hosts, (iii) cases of human infection reported and (iv) its pathogenesis.