The antibacterial activity of the methanol, ethanol, chloroform and aqueous extracts of the lichen Parmotrema nilgherrense collected from Nainital, Kumaun Himalaya, has been investigated. The extracts were tested against five pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Erwinia chrysanthemi, Escherichia coli, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Xanthomonas phaseoli) using agar-well method. All the extracts of P. nilgherrense were found effective by showing a mark zone of inhibition (ZOI) except aqueous extract. The chloroform extract exhibited potential antibacterial activity against the tested microorganisms (ZOI, 23-38mm) followed by ethanol and methanol extract (ZOI, 12-24 mm). Solvents treated wells were used as negative control and wells filled with standard antibiotic served as positive control in the experiment. Obtained results showed that P. nilgherrense extracts possess a broad-spectrum activity against a panel of bacteria responsible for the most common plants and animal diseases.
Background: Hemoglobin variants, ABO and Rhesus blood groups are known to vary from one population to another. This study therefore sought to study the frequency of these indices among a cohort of Nigerian University students of African descent. The result will serve as a platform for instituting genetic counseling services with a view to reducing hemoglobinopathies. Methods: Two hundred consenting students were recruited and screened for hemoglobin variants by standard alkaline cellulose acetate electrophoresis. ABO and Rhesus blood groups were determined by the hemagglutination technique. Results: Of the 200 students aged 18 – 25 years that were screened, 123 (61.5%) were males and 77(38.5%) were females. Those with blood group O were the most prevalent (45%) followed by groups A (25.5%), B (25%) and AB (3.5%). Only 2 genotypes HbAA (78.5%) and HbAS (21.5%) were reported in this study. Rhesus D antigen was positive for 94.0% and negative for 6.0% of the study population. Conclusions: The frequency of ABO and Rhesus blood groups appeared to be stable and consistent with reports from previous studies in Nigeria. Blood group O was the most prevalent. This also means there is a large pool of ‘’apparently’’ universal blood donors in this population. There was only one genotype variant reported (HbAS). This could imply a decline in hemoglobinopathies among Africans. Therefore the culture of genetic counseling must be encouraged and sustained.