Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Perception of Caregivers about Risk Factors and Manifestations of Pneumonia among Under Five Children in Butaleja District, Eastern Uganda

Beatrice Aguti, Godfrey Kalema, Dinah Maria Lutwama, Martin Loy Mawejje, Emmanuel Mupeyi, David Okanya, Rebecca Nekaka, Yahaya Gavamukulya

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/44179

Background: Despite the widespread national intervention strategies to curb its occurrence, Pneumonia remains one of the leading causes of morbidity in Butaleja district. This was a cross-sectional study carried out at Busolwe Hospital and aimed at establishing the knowledge and perception of caregivers about risk factors and manifestations of childhood pneumonia and it's high prevalence among the under-five children (U5C) in the district.

Methods: Structured researcher administered questionnaires were given to 302 caregivers of U5C visiting the hospital who were enrolled on a continuous random basis from April to May 2018. Microsoft Excel was used to retrieve and analyze the data which was then represented in form of frequencies and proportions.

Results: The study found that the majority of caregivers had inadequate knowledge about the condition, despite 69.5% of their U5C having suffered from pneumonia in the previous year. Additionally, some of the contributing factors to the high prevalence of pneumonia included poor ventilation in the houses, the presence of swamps contributing to coldness, failure to complete the immunisation dose and overcrowding in the households leading to household air pollution.

Conclusion: Pneumonia remains a big health challenge in Butaleja District as evidenced by the knowledge gap among caregivers as well other contributing factors which lead to its increased prevalence. In order reduce the burden, a comprehensive community sensitisation program needs to be rolled out to address most of the factors. It would also be important to look into the possible misdiagnosis of the condition and rule out antibiotic resistance to come up with an effective management strategy for curbing the high prevalence of pneumonia among the U5C in Butaleja District. Finally, the establishment of a National Health Insurance Scheme is strongly recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study on Phytochemical Extraction, Antibacterial and Synergistic Activity of Zingiber rubens with Tetracyclin on Homo sapiens and Gallus domesticus Originated Enteropathogenic Bacteria

Vinod Singh Bisht, Shivani Kandwal, Nisha Bisht, Hem Chandra Pant, Vishant Negi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/15909

Introduction: Nature is a rich source of medicinal plants, these medicinal plants used as a therapeutic agent from thousands years. At present medicinal properties of many plants compiled and these plants are source of many drugs, but properties of some medicinal plants is still unknown. The main object of this study is determination of phytochemical of Zingiber rubens, and biological activity of these active compounds against enteropathogenic microbes for determination of antibacterial activity and synergetic activity between plant extract and Tetracycline.

Methods: Firstly tubers of Zingiber rubensare shade dried and then extraction completed from powder form of plant material with different kinds of solvents (water, ethanol, petroleum ether and chloroform). After extraction their phytochemical constituents resolute through biochemical analysis and their antibacterial and synergetic activity examined through disc diffusion method on different strains of human and cock isolated enteropathogenic bacterial species.

Results: In our study we observed that organic solvent extract comprise more active compounds than other extract and the antibacterial activity of these organic extract is also higher than aqueous extract. In aqueous extraction between the temperatures at 30-50°C maximum numbers of phytochemicals are screened. Chloroform extract shows maximum inhibitory activity along and with Tetracycline against E. coli (12 mm/25 mm), cold water extract show minimum inhibitory activity along and with Tetracycline against S. aureus (6 mm/13.5 mm). Antibacterial activity expressed in terms of zone of inhibition.

Conclusion: from the results we concluded that extraction depends on nature of solvent and extraction temperature. Temperature between 30-50°C appropriate for organic and aqueous extraction.  At this temperature maximum number of photochemical screened in warm water and all organic solvent extract. Zingiber rubens contained both antibacterial and synergetic activities. Antibacterial activity of Tetracycline increases, due to the synergetic activity between Tetracyclin and Zingiber rubens phytochemicals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Production of 1, 3-Dihydroxyacetone from Glycerol Obtained as a Byproduct during Biodiesel Production

B. L. Sudarshan, K. R. Sanjay

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/17137

Aims: Present study was carried out using the glycerol obtained during biodiesel production for the conversion of 1,3-Dihydroxyacetone (DHA) by fermentation using bacterial strains G. oxydans, B. licheniformis and Acetobacter sp.

Study Design: Experiments were carried out to optimize fermentation conditions like media optimization by the addition of metal ions, physical parameters such as pH (3.5 to 7), temperature (20ºC to 45ºC), glycerol concentration (2% to 20%) and fermentation time (24 h to 144 h) were considered for optimization studies.

Methodology: Fermentation was carried in 2000 ml Erlenmeyer flask with agitation speed 120 rpm in shaker incubator (Scigenics Biotech Pvt. Ltd.), starter cultures was adjusted to approximately 5x105 CFU/ml with sterile saline solution. Experiments were carried out in triplicate and standard deviation was calculated. Amount of DHA produced in the final fermentation broth was estimated by 3, 5-Dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) and HPLC method. Coagulation, filtration, lyophilization and vacuum evaporation were carried out to extract DHA from the fermentation broth in a pure form.

Results: The optimum fermentation conditions for conversion of crude glycerol to DHA by G. oxydans were found to be fermentation period of 72 h with 10% glycerol concentration using modified MRS media at pH of 5.5 and 30ºC of temperature. The yield of DHA was 92.61 g/l.

Conclusion: The present study can be potentially useful for the efficient DHA production on industrial scale. In 1000 ml of fermentation media that contain 100 g of crude glycerol, and metal ions, were obtained 92.61 g of DHA (92% conversion rate of glycerol to DHA) after 72 h of fermentation with G. oxydans.

Open Access Original Research Article

Past & Current Status of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus & Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Pakistan

Azra Ayoub, Atia Iqbal

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/13349

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been emerging rapidly all over the world. Along with the developed countries, this agent has been spreading drastically among developing countries. Pakistan is one of these targeted countries where the spreading of MRSA is also a hot issue that is faced by the common people of Pakistan. Most of work has been done on the isolation of MRSA from the different patients in different cities of Pakistan. In article, the data showed the variable pattern of isolated MRSA among different cities. Rawalpindi was found to be most targeted area in 2007 to 2009 where MRSA prevalence was found 76% in Army Medical College Rawalpindi and this was gradually decreased up to 60.40% in 2011 to 2012 in five different hospitals of Rawalpindi. In Karachi, first case of MRSA was seen in 1989 (5%prevalence) then the prevalence of MRSA was increased (57%) in 2002 and then gradually decreased (43%) in 2004-2005 and (38.6%) in 2009. In Lahore, the MRSA prevalence was found 61% in 2000 to 2002 but it was decreased up to 38.6% in 2004, 27.77% (Jinnah Hospital Lahore) in 2007 to 2008 and 34.76% (Tertiary Care Hospital Lahore) in 2009. In 2012, the prevalence of MRSA was calculated 44% in two hospitals of Kohat. MRSA has become an alarming threat worldwide due to its resistance to multiple antibiotics. This condition is worst in developing countries due to non-sanitary conditions and unawareness of preventive measures taken by common people. The present study highlighted the previous and current pattern of MRSA in Pakistan from 1989 to 2013. Furthermore, the mechanism of MRSA and treatment were also being studied.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Surfactant Degrading Potential of Fungal Isolates from Detergent Contaminated Soil in Ondo State, Nigeria

D. J. Arotupin, A. K. Onifade, A. Yusuf

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/43218

Aim: To isolate and identify fungal flora from the detergent contaminated soil in Ondo State, Nigeria and also to evaluate biodegrading potentials of the potent isolates by comparing and quantifying their enzyme activity.                                    

Place and Duration of Study: Ondo State, Nigeria, between June and October, 2017.

Methodology: Detergent degrading fungi were isolated from detergent contaminated soil by supplementing culture media with test surfactant. The isolated fungi were subjected to enzyme analysis to study the alkylsulphatase enzyme production/activity.

Results: Six fungal isolates showed remarkable potential for alkylsulphatase production. In the enzyme study, Aspergillus clavatus (1.48 mM/min), Aspergillus flavus (1.46 mM/min) and Geotrichum candidum (1.40 mM/min) showed better enzymatic action in the enzyme study as compared to others.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that Aspergillus clavatus, Aspergillus flavus and Geotrichum candidum can be found in soil environment polluted with detergent. They possess the mechanism involved in the degradation of detergent thus they are capable of surviving the toxic effect of the pollutant. They can efficiently produce alkylsulphatase; thus can be employed in enzyme production and utilised in the bioremediation of environments contaminated with surfactants.