Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of the Alkylsulphatase Activity of Bacteria Found in Soil Contaminated with Detergent in Ondo State, Nigeria

D. J. Arotupin, A. K. Onifade, A. Yusuf

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/43167

Aim: To isolate, characterise and identify detergent degrading bacteria from the detergent contaminated soil in Ondo State, Nigeria and also to compare and quantify enzyme production and biodegrading potentials of each of the bacterial isolate.                                     

Place and Duration of Study: Ondo state, Nigeria, between February and July 2017.

Methodology: Detergent degrading bacteria were isolated from detergent contaminated soil samples by supplementing minimal salt media with test surfactant. The bacteria isolated were subjected to enzyme analysis to study the alkylsulphatase enzyme production/activity in relation to growth pattern.

Results: Some bacterial isolates showed remarkable potential for alkylsulphatase production. In the enzyme study, Bacillus subtilis (1.53 mM/min), Pseudomonas putida (1.36 mM/min) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (1.33 mM/min) showed better enzymatic activity than the other isolates. Bacillus subtilis showed the highest enzymatic activity of 1.53 mM/min.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens can be found in soil environment polluted with detergent. They are capable of surviving the toxic effect of the pollutant and efficiently producing alkylsulphatase, thus can be employed in enzyme production. They are capable of degrading detergent as a pollutant, thus can be utilized in the bioremediation of soil environments contaminated with surfactants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lactose Fermenting Salmonella Spp in Akure: Antibiotic Resistance Patterns and Resulting Clinical Implications

O. I. Afolami, A. K. Onifade

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/35475

A total of 200 clinical and water samples from Akure metropolis were subjected to bacteriological analysis, of which 37 isolates of lactose fermenting Salmonella were obtained; Antibiotic sensitivity tests were carried out on the lactose fermenting isolates of Salmonella spp obtained from the samples. From the results, it was discovered that all the lactose fermenting isolates of Salmonella showed multiple antibiotic resistances (multidrug resistance) to the different broad spectrum antibiotics used at varying standard inhibitory concentrations. This conducted study gave an insight into the rising incidence of relapsing salmonellosis due to multiple antibiotic resistant strains of lactose fermenting Salmonella in the Akure metropolis, provided a scientific explanation to the modified feeding patterns as seen in the Salmonella isolates that can utilize lactose sugar due to their genetic modifications and critically evaluated the resulting clinical implications of these residual multiple antibiotic resistant- lactose fermenting Salmonella isolates obtained from the metropolis between July and October 2014 during which this research was conducted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Enhancement Biochemicals Levels and Improve Histological Tissues of Kidney and Liver Organs for Duckling’s Received Aflatoxin B1 by Using Propolis Extract

Nahed M. Ayaat, E. M. Embaby, Mona M. Abd Elgalil, Reyad M. El Sharkawy, Mona M. Gouda, N. A. Hassan, Ahmed Shawky

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/43773

The aim of the present study was focused to see the effect of propolis as a natural product on duckling’s health when exposed to aflatoxin B1, to enhancement body weight of duckling’s received feed contaminated aflatoxin B1, to enhancement blood function and to improve kidney and liver tissues. The present study show that, birds began to show symptoms of toxicity after 2 weeks. Aflatoxin B1 alone was found to reduce feed efficiency and poor health can cause by an imbalance of nutrients. Abnormalities symptoms were found with all ducklings received aflatoxin B1. These birds showing slow eating, leg paralysis, slow moving as result of loss functional movement, inflammatory edema of the eyelids (affect eyes), hair loss, and changed in the color when compared with control. All ducklings fed 0.018 ng / ml aflatoxin B1 diet had significantly (P < 0.01 & P < 0.05) lower body weight compared with the control group (Un-treated). Whereas, all ducklings received Propolis extracts plus aflatoxin B1 were enhanced and appear comparable to the control. Propolis extract was found improve significantly (P < 0.01 & P < 0.05) all body weight gain of all ducklings in the different treatment groups. On the other hand exposure to aflatoxin B1 can cause several damage to organ systems, increase significantly (P < 0.01 & P < 0.05) all tested biochemical parameter determined as Urea m mol/L, Creatinine mg/dl, SGPT U/L and SGOT U/L compared with un-treated control. Whereas, all ducklings received Propolis extracts plus  aflatoxin B1 were improve all these parameters. In the affected birds metabolic changes lead to enlargement of liver, kidney and spleen as well as decrease in the size of bursa of fabricus as a result, liver is greatly enlarged, yellow and friable (easily broken), fat accumulates inside the cell of liver as clear vacuoles. Data show that enlargement in kidney weight in contaminated groups . Whereas, all ducklings received Propolis extracts plus  aflatoxin B1 were improved and appear comparable to the control. Also, microscopic examination of liver and kidney tissues showing, changes of histopathological tissues with all ducklings received aflatoxin B1. Whereas, all ducklings received Propolis extracts plus  aflatoxin B1 were improved and appear comparable to the control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation of Result of Blood Culture and C- Reactive Protein Test in Neonatal Septicemia

Gandhi Purvi, Trivedi Minal, M. M. Vegad, P. K. Shah

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/45559

Introduction: Neonatal septicemia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care unit. As the clinical manifestations are nonspecific, it is necessary to made early diagnosis to reduce morbidity and mortality. So, an effort was made to determine the correlation between blood culture and C reactive protein (CRP) in neonate presenting with features of sepsis to aid in the early and effective diagnosis.

Aim: To study CRP as an early indicator of sepsis and its statistical association with blood culture in suspected cases of neonatal septicemia.

Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted from July 2013 to December 2013 in tertiary care teaching Hospital, Ahmedabad. Total 300 Blood samples were received from clinically suspected patients of neonatal septicemia from neonatal intensive care unit, and processed by BACT/ALERT 3D automated blood culture instrument and CRP was determined in the same. We studied association between CRP & blood culture positivity in neonatal sepsis.

Results: In our study; out of 300, 143 samples had positive results for CRP test i.e. 47.6%. In a total of 93 culture positive detected sample of neonatal septicemia, 80 samples were CRP positive. It indicates the sensitivity of CRP test to detect neonatal septicemia to be 86.02%. In a total of 207 culture negative sample, 144 samples were detected negative by CRP results .Hence, the specificity of CRP was found to be 69.5%.

Conclusion: The present study depicts a significant correlation between blood culture positivity and CRP levels. Thus, estimation of CRP levels and its interpretation in the light of clinical picture can aid as a tool for the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Missed Serologic Diagnosis of Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Blood Donors in Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi, Nigeria

Nwadioha Iheanacho Samuel, Odimayo Simidele, Ene Brown Chidiebere, Efosa Oghagbon, Utoo Priscilla, Nwannadi Alex

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/45752

Background: Serologic undetected Hepatitis B Virus infections have posed a significant global threat in blood transfusion with attendant active liver disease.

Objective: To detect occult Hepatitis B Virus infection (OBI) in subjects with Hepatitis B surface antigen negative-sera.

Methodology:  One hundred and seventy (170) serum samples were randomly collected from leftovers of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seronegative tested blood samples belonging to anonymous blood donors in the blood bank unit of Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi. Fifty HBsAg positive samples were employed as controls. The serum samples were tested for Hepatitis B Virus serologic profiles such as an anti-HBs antibody, anti- HB core antibody and anti-HBe antibody by HBV combination immune-chromatographic rapid kits manufactured by Acumen Diagnostics Incorporated (Lot SAG91108; expiry date 12/2018) and compared with results detected from nested polymerase chain reaction carried out.

Results: Hepatitis B Viral DNA (<50 copies/ml) was detected in 5.9% (n=10/170) total HBsAg negative samples as OBI; 71.0% (n=120/170) of total HBsAg negative samples was positive for anti- HBs antibody; 15.3% (n=26/170) was positive for anti- HBe antibody; 8.2% (n=14/170) was sero-positive for Hepatitis Bcore antibody (anti-HBcore). Out of the 10 OBI positive samples, 100.0% (n=10/10) was sero-positive for Hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBcore); 60.0% (n=6/10) positive for anti-HBs antibody and 30.0% (n=3/10)HBeAg. 

Conclusion: Our findings showed a 5.9% prevalence rate of Occult Hepatitis B Virus infection (OBI) among blood donors in Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi, Nigeria.

However, Hepatitis B Virus core antibody (anti- HBc) serologic screening test could have unmasked this hidden diagnosis. Hence anti-HBc antibody serologic screening test should be made a mandatory serologic test for every subject with HBsAg negative sample serum wishing to donate blood in low economic settings where Nucleic acid testing is not easily affordable.