Open Access Short communication

The Fallacy of Identification by Neutralization in the Light of Non-Cytopathic Effect Producing Enterovirus Strains

Moses Olubusuyi Adewumi, Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas Faleye, Johnson Adekunle Adeniji

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/38280

We describe the characterization of an enterovirus isolate recovered from untreated raw sewage in Ibadan, southwest Nigeria in 2010. The isolate was neutralized by specific antisera and consequently identified as Echovirus 7 (E7). Subsequent molecular characterization showed the isolate to be a mixture of E7 and Coxsackievirus A24 (CV-A24) thereby suggesting the CV-A24 strain to be non-cytopathic effect producing. It is therefore crucial that identities of enterovirus strains determined by neutralization assay be verified by molecular characterization to ensure they do not have any non-cytopathic effect producing strain(s) lurking unnoticed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial Response to Varying Concentrations of Crude Oil Pollution of Agricultural Soils in Ondo State, Nigeria

Felix Adeleke Ikuesan

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/38053

This research investigated the effects of varying concentrations of crude oil on the population of crude oil degrading microorganisms in crude oil polluted agricultural soils from Igodan- Lisa, Oba-Ile and Ido-Ani areas of Ondo State, Nigeria. The soil samples were exposed to 1- 4% (w/w) crude oil and analyzed monthly for six periods using standard microbiological techniques for the cultivation and enumeration of crude oil degrading bacteria and fungi. Results indicated that the crude oil degrading microbial populations were significantly altered. The population of crude oil degrading microbes were higher (1.03 x 105 - 1.10 x 106cfu/g for bacteria and 1.07 x 104 – 8.67 x 105 sfu/g for fungi) in polluted than unpolluted (1.53 x 104 – 9.40 x 105 cfu/g for bacteria and 1.17 x 103 – 5.17 x 105 sfu/g for fungi) soils and also varied with increase in the amount of crude oil spilled and time. The mean count indicated that the microbiological status of the soil samples were not negatively impacted at 1-4% crude oil contamination and the effect on soil micro flora is a function of both concentration and contact time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Piper betel Leaves and Nigella sativa Seeds against Multidrug Resistant Food and Water Borne Pathogenic Bacteria: An in vitro Study Model

Md. Saifur Rahman, Md. Abdul Wadud, Tarequl Islam, Md. Saddam Hussain, Esfat M. Saim Bristy, Ashraful Mahmud Tuhin

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/37796

This research was aimed to contribute to the previous knowledge of combating pathogens by using local medicinal plants in Bangladesh. In the present work, the antibacterial activity of Paan (Piper betel leaves) and Black cumin (Nigella sativa seeds) extracts in water as well as in various organic solvents (namely methanol and ethanol) were analyzed against food and waterborne pathogenic bacteria (both gram-positive and gram-negative) viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis, all of which were previously found to be resistant to different antibiotics. Methanol extracts of Piper betel was the best extract in inhibiting the growth of gram-positive bacteria, secondly aqueous and ethanol extracts were less effective as antibacterial agents except against S. aureus while gram-negative bacteria, only S. typhi and P. aeruginosa were found to be sensitive to aqueous extracts. Methanol extracts of Black cumin was effective against gram-negative where ethanol extracts were effective against gram-positive but S. typhi was sensitive to both ones. When extracts were compared with the traditional antibiotics, this activity was especially competent against S. aureus followed by B. cereus and B. subtilis. When Betel extracts were compared with the traditional antibiotics, this activity was especially competent against E.coli followed by S. typhiand P. aeruginosa. The broth dilution assay revealed that the bactericidal values for both the plant extracts fall in the range of 1125 to 2250 µg/ml. These results suggest that betel leaves and black cumin seeds have potential antibacterial activity against multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Coccidiosis Potential of Autoclaveable Antimicrobial Peptides from Xenorhabdus budapestensis Resistant to Proteolytic (Pepsin, Trypsin) Digestion Based on In vitro Studies

András Fodor, László Makrai, László Fodor, István Venekei, Ferenc Husvéth, László Pál, Andor Molnár, Károly Dublecz, Csaba Pintér, Sándor Józsa, Michael G. Klein

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/38516

Aims: To elucidate the anticoccidial potential of antimicrobial peptides from Xenorhabdus budapestensison both causative pathogens (prokaryotic Clostridium perfringens and eukaryotic Eimeria tenella).

Objectives: (1) To establish if the antimicrobial compounds of the cell-free culture media (CFCM) of the entomopathogenic symbiotic bacterium species, X. budapestensis DSM 16342 (EMA) and X. szentirmaii DSM 16338 (EMC) were active against 13 independent pathogenic isolates of Clostridium perfringens in vitro; (2) To create a sterile, autoclaved, bio-preparation called “XENOFOOD”, for future in vivo feeding studies, aimed at determining the efficacy, and side-effects, of EMA and EMC on C. perfringens in chickens.

Study Design: Clostridium perfringens samples (LH-1-LH24) were collected from chickens and turkeys, and were deposited in the frozen stock collection of Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Szent István University, Budapest, Hungary, where the in vitro assays were carried out on 13 of these isolates.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Szent István University, Budapest, Hungary between September 2013 and February 2014.

Methodology: Adaptation of our previously published in vitro bioassays for aerobic tests for the anaerobic bacteria Clostridium perfringens. When preparing “XENOFOOD” we benefitted from our experimental data about the heat tolerance and endurance to proteolytic enzymatic digestion of the studied antimicrobial peptides.

Results: The studied antimicrobial peptides were heat-stable, trypsin and pepsin resistant. All but one of 13 C. perfringens isolates was sensitive to EMA-CFCM. XENOFOOD (made here) is not toxic for chicken, (unpublished).

Conclusion: Since these cell-free cultures killed E. tenella cells, but were toxic to permanent chicken liver (LMH) cells, we need to run in vivo feeding tests to determine the gastrointestinal (ileac), anti-Clostridiumand anti-Eimeria biological effects of the these heat, - and proteolysis tolerant antimicrobial peptides.

Open Access Original Research Article

Small Ruminants Abscesses: Bacterial Etiology, Antibiogram and Haematological Study in the East of Saudi Arabia

B. Al-Traif, F. M. T. Housawi, M. A. Salem, K. A. Al-Saktawi, A. Fadlelmula

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/38366

Health and productivity of sheep and goats are affected greatly by superficial and deep abscesses. This study aimed to investigate the bacterial causative agents and their antibiogram of local and foreign breeds of sheep and goats abscesses in in Alhasa and Dammam areas of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A total of 37 and 29 species of were isolated from local and foreign breed sheep and goats abscess respectively.  In local breed, Kocuria varians isolation rate was 11.67%, then K. rosea (7.42%), K. kristinae (6.99%), Streptococcus uberisCorynebacterium pseudotuberculosisSphingomonas  paucimobilis (6.55%), C. pyogenes (3.93%), Staphaureus subspanaerobius (3.49%). In foreign breed, K. varians and K. rosea of (11.67 %), Acineto. lwoffii (7.35%), Sp H. paucimobilis, Strept. uberis (5.88 %), Staph. aureus subsp. anaerobius (4.41%). This is the first report for isolation of Kocuria spp. from sheep and goats abscesses as reports of this species from animals are meagre. The prevalent isolates showed high degree of resistance to commonly-used antibiotics. Haematological analysis showed significant increase of granulocytes count (P = < .05) in the affected sheep and goats (50.3± 2.7% & 47.5± 5.8%) compared to control ones (40.6± 2.5%& 44±5.4%). In leucocytes, significant increase (P = < .05) in the affected sheep than normal animals but goats showed no difference. Contrary, the lymphocyte percentage significantly decreased (P= < .05) in diseased sheep and goats abscesses (45.07± 1.17%) as compared with control group (52.6 ± 1.8%). The study indicated that abscesses in sheep and goats did not affect erythrocytes count or haemoglobin content.