Open Access Original Research Article

A Bacteriological Study of Vibrio cholerae Isolated from Rural Tertiary Care Hospital of Loni, Western Maharashtra

N. A. Raytekar, S. Saini, D. Bhalerao, S. Deorukhkar, B. L.Sarkar

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 949-958
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2014/5159

Aim: Cholera is endemic in many parts of India and a major public health problem. The present study was carried out with the aims to understand biotype, serotype, phage type and drug resistance of Vibrio cholerae isolates obtained at a rural tertiary care hospital in Loni.

Study Design: Descriptive retrospective study was carried out to study V. cholerae isolates from 544 faecal specimens of patients with acute gastroenteritis.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted during 2009-2012 at Rural Medical College of Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences, Loni, District Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India.

Methods: A total of 28 isolates of V. cholerae were included in the study. V. cholerae was identified by standard microbiological procedures. Biotyping, serotyping and phage typing was done. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was performed by Kirby- Bauer disc diffusion method.

Results: V. cholerae strains were isolated from 28 faecal specimens. All the isolates were identified as V. cholerae O1 biotype El Tor serotype Ogawa and phage 27 was the predominant type. Male: Female ratio was 1:1.5 and high incidence was seen in 0-10 age group (35.71%). Maximal occurrence in monsoon season was recorded. All the isolates were resistant to co-trimoxazole, nalidixic acid and ampicillin. However maximum sensitivity was observed to norfloxacin (71.42%) followed by gentamycin (67.85%) and chloramphenicol (28.57%).

Conclusion: A continuous surveillance for V. cholerae is required with respect to changing epidemiology and emergence of antibiotic resistance strains. The source and spread of infection should be investigated to decide the proper management strategies. Additionally, quality of water and status of sanitation should be monitored.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Nocardiosis in Sputum of HIV Positive/AIDS Patients in a Tertiary Health Institution in North Central Nigeria

M. B. Abu-Saeed, A. A. Akanbi II, K. Abu-Saeed

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 959-967
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2014/8774

Aim: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of Nocardia species in the sputum of HIV/AIDS patients attending Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) clinic at a tertiary health institution in the North central part of Nigeria.

Study Design: This study was an analytical cross-sectional laboratory based research.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Ilorin teaching hospital (UITH), Ilorin. Nigeria between August 2012 and February 2013.

Method: Two hundred and forty eight (248) patients were recruited for this study and had their sputum collected in duplicates for investigation. The samples were cultured on Buffered Charcoal Yeast Extract (BCYE) medium. Gram and Auramine Rhodamine staining were carried out on the isolates respectively for microscopy.

Result: Only one (1) patient tested positive to Nocardia species giving a prevalence rate of 0.4%.

Conclusion: This study gives an indication that Pulmonary Nocardiosis may be found within UITH among HIV patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Analysis of the Electronic Structure of an Imidazo [1,2-a] Pyrrolo [2,3-c] Pyridine Series and Their Anti-Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Activity

Juan S. Gómez-Jeria

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 968-987
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2014/9577

The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between electronic structure and anti Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus activity in a series of imidazo[1,2-a] pyrrolo [2,3-c]pyridine derivatives. The electronic structure and the local atomic reactivity indices were obtained with density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) level. A statistically significant equation (n=15, R=0.90, R2=0.82, adj R2=0.77, F(3,11)=16.60 (p<0.0002), outliers>2σ=0, SD=0.29) relating the variation of the antiviral activity with the variation of the electron-donor and electron-acceptor properties of three atoms was obtained. The variation of antiviral potency is orbital-controlled. A partial antiviral pharmacophore is proposed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Drug Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Benue, Nigeria

S. I. Nwadioha, E. O. P Nwokedi, G. C. Ezema, N. C. Eronini, A. Anikwe, F. Audu, I. Onwuezobe

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 988-995
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2014/9084

Tuberculosis is an important opportunistic infection in HIV/AIDS.  Benue state is the highest HIV endemic state in Nigeria and investigation of tuberculosis cases and Mycobacterial resistance patterns are needed.  A retrospective study with a review of reports of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the rifampicin resistance was detected by the Cepheid GeneXpert MTB/RIF system was carried out from July, 2012 to September, 2013 in Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi and Nigeria Airforce Hospital, Makurdi. Pulmonary tuberculosis was detected in 21.5% (n=303/1407) of the total sample. Rifampicin resistance of 13.5% (31/230) and 15.1% (11/73) of the pulmonary tuberculosis positive cases was detected in Federal Medical Centre and Nigeria Airforce Base Hospital respectively, with an average prevalence of 13.9% (42/303). Re-treatment cases comprised 81% (34/42) whereas new cases constituted 19% (8/42) of all Rifampicin resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis positive cases (X 2 = 6.51; p<0.05). Mean age was 30 years and there was no significant statistical difference in gender. Rifampicin resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is prevalent in Benue state, Nigeria especially, in the young adults. Therefore, laboratory facilities for rapid diagnosis of the drug resistant M. tuberculosis should be scaled up across the country. This remains an important step to achieve maximal impact in managing drug resistance in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Rhizobium Strains Isolated from the Root Nodules of Vigna mungo Cultivated in Rice Fallows for Their Phosphate Solubilizing Ability and Enzymatic Activities

T. Satyanandam, K. Babu, G. Rosaiah, M. Vijayalakshmi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 996-1006
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2014/10512

Aims: The present work is aimed to find out the enzymatic activities and phosphate solubilizing efficiency of indigenous rhizobia confined to rice fallows.

Study Design: In this experiment we maintained random block design (RBD).

Place and Duration of Study: This work was carried out in the Department of Botany and Microbiology, Acharya Nagarjuna University between October 2012 and December 2013.

Methodology: In this study, we have isolated 19 Rhizobium strains collected from the healthy root nodules of Vigna mungo cultivated in rice fallows on yeast extract mannitol agar (YEMA) medium.  The strains were confirmed as Rhizobia by using Gram staining, growth on YEMA with congo red, growth in Hofer’s alkaline broth, growth on glucose peptone agar, acid production, ketolactose test and nodulating ability was tested on homologous hosts by plant infection tests. Phosphate solubilization ability of the isolated Rhizobium strains were carried out Pikovskaya’s agar medium.

Results: Eight out of 19 strains tested for phosphate solubilizing ability on Pikovskaya’s agar medium containing tri calcium phosphate (TCP) as insoluble phosphate source showed zone of TCP solubilization. The strain VM-2 exhibited maximum solubilization after 48h of incubation, while least activity was found with VM-11. Effect of different carbon and nitrogen sources on phosphate solubilizing ability of Rhizobial strains was tested and maximum phosphate solubilization (799µg/ml) by VM-2 was observed when glucose and ammonium sulphate were used as carbon and nitrogen sources.

Conclusion: In this study it is concluded that along with symbiotic nitrogen fixtation, some Rhizobium species were found to be involved in phosphate solubilization and this ability of phosphate solubilization by the Rhizobium strains can be exploited as PGPR.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasite among School Children of Bharatpokhari V.D.C., Kaski, Nepal

Suresh Jaiswal, Dhaka Raj Pant, Bishnu Raj Tiwari, Jay Prakash Sah, Ravin Bhandari, Shraddha Upadhyaya

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1007-1012
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2014/8367

Aims: To determine the prevalence of the intestinal parasitic infection among school children and the factors associated with it.

Study Design: Cross Sectional

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted among school children in Bhulbhula Intermediate School, Janjyoti Primary School and Sukla Primary School of Bharatpokhari VDC, Kaski, western region of Nepal during December, 2012 to Feburary, 2013.

Materials and Methods: A total of 163 faecal samples were collected. Samples were investigated under standard WHO guidelines for identification of parasites. Samples were analysed microscopically.

Results: Out of the 163 children screened, the overall parasitic infection rate was found to be 18(11%). There was no statistically significant association between sex (p=0.935), schools (p=0.570) or age group (p=0.327) and the infection status. On the whole, Entamoeba histolytica (E.h) had the prevalence of 61.0% followed by Trichuris trichuria (TT) 22.0% and Hook worm, Ascaris/Giardia, Trichuris trichuria/Entamoeba histolytica 6.0% each.

Conclusion: Results of this study indicates a low prevalence of intestinal parasite among school children in Bharatpokhari VDC, kaski, Western region of Nepal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioremediation of Industrial Solid Wastes

P. N. Ibegbulam-Njoku, C. C. Chijioke-Osuji, I. O. Ejeagba

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1013-1024
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2014/7943

Aims: Use of Pleurotus ostreatus as a veritable tool in the bioremediation of empty fruit bunches, pulp and paper wastes from respective industries.   

Place and Duration of Study: Samples of pure culture Pleurotus ostreatus was obtained from National Roots Crops Research Institute Laboratory Umudike, Umuahia and  transported to the laboratory of Starline Nigeria Group of Companies Aba, both in Abia state, Nigeria  where it was used to carry out experimental work from July to September, 2013.

Methodology:  The two substrates (empty fruit bunch (EFB) and paper pulp wastes) were dried in the sun for one week and further dried in Gallen Kamp hot box oven (DGH-9053A) at 50ºC  for 4hours. Samples were ground, sieved and powder obtained used for proximate composition determination. Approximately 1cm2 blocks of pure culture of Pleurotus ostreatus mycelium previously collected and maintained on Malt extract agar (MEA) was used to inoculate sterilized wheat grain already soaked in water for 36hours, mixed with 2.5% calcium carbonate and 1% gypsum during spawn preparation. The empty fruit bunches and paper wastes were reduced to smaller sizes of 2-5cm. The respective substrates were mixed with lime and soaked in water for 4h to obtain moisture level of 70%. The substrates (2kg) was bagged in heat resistant polythene and sterilized for 3hours at 80°C. Approximately 40g individual sterilized substrate was inoculated with 2% spawn adopting multilayered technique. After inoculation, holes were made on the bags to ensure aeration, kept inside a disinfected room at 25-28ºC. When Pleurotus mycelium had completely colonized the substrates, bags were removed, colonized substrate transferred to sunlight illuminated room at 28°C, moisture content of 75-85% and adequate watering of the mushroom for 21 days. The process was repeated in combinations of other substrates like wheat, straw and sorghum respectively with each of the substrates (EFB and Paper Waste); all prepared at 70:30% ratio respectively.

Results: Among the different treatments, Empty fruit bunch gave maximum yield of 201.5g/kg of substrate on 14th day and total yield of 675.1g/kg of dry substrate. The nutritional content of Pleurotus ostreatus grown on different substrate and substrate combination ranges from 83.5-91.4% moisture, 18.3-23.5% protein and 6.04-6.86% ash contents. The combination of EFB + sorghum best supported the bioremediation process of Empty fruit bunch.

Conclusion: Pleurotus ostreatus could serve as bioremediation tool for industrial solid wastes like EFB and paper. It can also alleviate poverty by providing greater income for most unemployed youth at no cost.

Open Access Original Research Article

Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Following Caesarean Section in Nnewi, Nigeria: A Prospective Comparative Study

Onyema A. Onyegbule, Gerald O. Udigwe, Ifeanyichukwu Ezebialu, Arinze C. Nduka, Vitus E. Okolie, Ositadinma L. Okor

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1025-1034
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2014/10097

Background: Urinary tract catheterization is a major risk factor for urinary tract infections (UTIs). Catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) still remain a major reservoir of antibiotic resistant pathogens with attendant increase in morbidity and mortality.

Objective: To determine and compare the incidence of catheter associated urinary tract infections following immediate and 24-hour postoperative removal of urethral catheters for caesarean section.

Design:  The study was a prospective, comparative study.

Place and Duration of Study:  Labour ward, Theatre and Postnatal wards of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Nnewi between August 2012 to April 2013.

Methodology: The study involved 156 women admitted for caesarean section where the urethral catheters were removed 24-hour post operatively (group A) or immediately after caesarean section (group B). Urine samples were collected. Outcome measures included pre-operative and 72 hour postoperative urine microscopy, culture and sensitivity, urinary frequency, dysuria, urgency, fever and duration of hospital stay. The patients’ data were coded, computed and analyzed using SPSS version 16. A P-value of <0.05 was considered significant.

Results: Of the 79 patients in group A, 9 (11.4%) had significant bacteriuria in the 72 hour post operative urine culture while 5 (6.5%) had significant bacteriuria in group B, (OR=1.85: 95% CI 0.59-5.80, P=0.28). The overall incidence of catheter associated urinary tract infection in NAUTH was 14(9.0%).  Escherichia coli were mostly isolated 4 (44.4%). The lowest level of resistance was seen with Amoxycillin- clavulanic acid (Augmentin).

Conclusion: The present study showed that significant bacteriuria in Group A almost double the incidence in Group B, however, the difference was not statistically significant. Further studies should be carried out to compare catheterization with non- catheterization for caesarean section.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern of Multidrug Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MDRE) Isolated from Clinical Samples with Special Reference to Carbapenemase Production and Susceptibility to Tigecycline

Joel Filgona, Tuhina Baneerje, Shampa Anupurba

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1035-1045
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2014/9719

Aim: The study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of multidrug resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MDRE), their susceptibility to carbapenems and tigecycline, and subsequently carbapenemase producers among clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae.

Study Design:  Investigative.

Place and Duration: The study was performed in the Microbiology Department, Institute of Medical Science, associated Sir Sunderlal hospital, Banaras Hindu University Varanasi, during January 2012 to August 2013.

Methods: Samples were collected from patients in accordance with standard practice and Enterobacteriaceae identified by conventional biochemical procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility of isolates and Modified Hodge test were carried out according to the CLSI guide-lines.

Results: A total of 761 isolates belonging to Enterobacteriaceae were obtained from the samples, dominated by 292 E. coli, 236 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 53 Citrobacter freundii, 51 C. koseri, and 36 K. oxytoca. Antibiogram revealed piperacillin-tazobactam as the most effective agent, with 21.9% of the isolates resistant to it, followed by amikacin (22.4%), levofloxacin (22.8%) and minocycline (23.5%). A total of 512 (67.3%) isolates were MDRE, of which 198 (38.7%) were resistant to at least one of the carbapenems, and 3(0.6%) to tigecycline. Of the isolates 322 (62.9%) were carbapenem resistant enterobacteria (CRE). Carbapenemase production was detected in 256 (50.0%) and 105 (20.0%) isolates among the MDRE by disk diffusion and Modified Hodge tests respectively.

Conclusions: High prevalence of MDRE and CRE was observed. Tigecycline showed better in vitro activity over carbapenems indicating an increasing loss of efficacy among these comparators. There was a relatively wide disparity among likely carbapenemase producers identified by Modified Hodge and disk diffusion tests. Findings suggest the need for prudent antimicrobial and infection control policy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activity of Marsilea quadrifolia (L.) Against Some Selected Pathogenic Microorganisms

Karikalan Gopalakrishnan, Rajangam Udayakumar

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1046-1056
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2014/9969

Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of different solvent extracts of leaf and stem of M. quadrifolia (L.) against selected human pathogenic microorganisms.

Methods: The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by well diffusion method. The antibacterial and antifungal studies were carried out at the Department Laboratory, Government Arts College (Autonomous), Kumbakonam – 612 001, Tamilnadu, India during the months of July to December 2013. Wells of 6 mm diameter were punched in the agar medium and filled with different volumes of extracts (50mg/ml) contains 2.5, 3.75 and 5mg concentrations.

Results: The antimicrobial activity of different solvent extracts of leaf and stem of               M. quadrifolia at different concentrations was analyzed. Among the concentrations, 5mg of both leaf and stem extracts showed best antimicrobial activity than other concentrations 2.5 and 3.75mg.  The leaf and stem extracts showed antimicrobial activity and produced the zone of inhibition ranges from 8 to 23mm. The aqueous leaf extract showed maximum zone of inhibition 23mm against Streptococcus pyogenes followed by ethanolic stem extract showed 21mm against Bacillus subtilis. The minimum antibacterial activity 8mm was observed by diethyl ether stem extract against Klebsiella pneumonia. The antifungal activity of diethyl ether leaf extract showed positive results in all tested fungal strains when compared to other solvent extracts. The maximum zone of inhibition 13mm was observed against Aspergillus terreus at 5mg of diethyl ether leaf extract. Aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts had no antifungal activity in all tested fungal strains except 5mg of methanolic leaf extract. The aqueous and diethyl ether stem extracts showed potent antifungal activity and the maximum zone of inhibition 15mm was observed against Aspergillus niger. Diethyl ether stem extract also showed maximum zone of inhibition 15mm against Trichoderma viride.

Conclusion: From this study, we concluded that it may be a new source for the discovery of novel antimicrobial compounds from M. quadrifolia.