Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of Mutation of PBP1 Gene of Helicobacter pylori in Gastric Biopsies in Abidjan

C. V. Mbengue Gbonon, F. B. Diplo Tchepe, N. Guessennd, A. F. Yapo, S. Kacou Ngazoa, N. D. Coulibaly, A. J. Djaman, M. Dosso

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/39353

Objectives: The purpose of this study is to determine the presence of mutations in the gene pbp1, conferring resistance to amoxicillin of Helicobacter pylori, from gastric biopsies in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire).

Place and Duration: Between August 2015 and February 2016, gastric biopsies were collected in the endoscopy room from adult patients in the Gastroenterology Department at the Hospital and University Center of Cocody (Abidjan) and then stored. From October to December 2016, laboratory tests were performed in the Bacteriology-virology department, the molecular biology platform of the Institute Pasteur of Côte d'Ivoire, and the sequencing platform Eurofins (Cochin, France).

Methodology: Helicobacter pylori DNA was extracted directly from the stored gastric biopsies. The detection of the gene pbp1 in Helicobacter pylori was done through conventional PCR and the DNA was quantified using a NanoDrop® spectrophotometer, Lite (Thermo Fischer Scientific, USA), followed by sequencing from Eurofins, MWG / operon (Cochin, France). The reference strains used for sequence comparison were selected from NCBI's Genbank database with accession numbers ranging from AY 743230.1 to AY 743236.1.

Results: Thirteen out of fifty-six pbp1 genes, conferring resistance to amoxicillin, were sequenced. The substitution of Lysine for Leucine at position 102 (K102L) was predominant in 7 of them, about 53.8%. A Substitution at position 62 of glycine by alanine (G62A) was also found in 6 of them (about 46.2%). In addition, 5 of the 13 strains (or 38.5%) all had Lysine substitutions. They are F45K, D54K, H60K, and I117K.

Conclusion: The presence of several mutations in the gene pbp1 of H. pylori might be a dominant factor in the resistance to amoxicillin of H. pylori, which needs further investigations. 

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Aspergillus flavus ES Isolate on the Decolourisation of Crystal Violet, Titan Yellow and Congo Red

Eman, S. Abdelkhalek

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/38858

In the textile and dyeing industries, chemical dyes are increasingly preferred over natural dyes. Chemical dyes are easier to use and more cost effective to synthesize. The firmness and colour variety of chemical dyes is also beneficial. Unfortunately, these chemical dyes are often found in industrial effluent. Decolourising these released dyes can reduce their environmental toxicity. In this study, an isolate of Aspergillus flavus ES was used to decolourise three commercial dyes. As dye concentrations increased, the percentage of decolourisation increased, even as growth of the fungal isolate decreased. Also, an increase in the dye incubation period led to an increase in the decolourisation percentage. Further analysis showed that the organic and fatty acid levels of the Aspergillus flavus ES isolate were affected by the dye. Finally, it was found that increasing dye concentration had a toxic effect on the fungal ultrastructure.


Open Access Original Research Article

Retrospective Studies on the Incidence of Ear Infections among Patients at National Ear Care Centre, Kaduna, North Central Nigeria

B. R. Danraka, M. Bello

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/40023

Ear infection is one of the commonest symptoms which are caused by trauma to any part of the ear components. The retrospective analysis of the incidence of ear infection was carried out using patients’ medical records from the period of February to October 2011. Results of this study showed that ear discharge infection was on the high side in patients’ aged 20 years and below and the incidence rate reduces with the age of patients. The patients’ medical record showed that 13.4% had unilateral ear discharge with an incidence rate of 83.5% of the total two hundred and ninety-one (291) records. Pseudomonas species (45.10%) were the most prevalent bacteria isolated, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (41.25%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (4.55%), Klebsiella species (3.85%), Candida species (2.10%), Haemophilis species (1.75%) and Proteus species (1.40%). The bacterial isolates exhibited the least resistance to Ciprofloxacin (17.79%) followed by Gentamycin (32.74%), while Cotrimoxazole, Chloramphenicol, and Amoxycillin were ineffective against the bacterial isolates. Long-term follow-up and education or continuous sensitization of patients on ear infections is needed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Alleviation of Salinity Stress Effects in Forage Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) by Bradyrhizobium sp. Inoculation

Alaa El-Dein Omara, Tamer El-Gaafarey

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/40727

To investigate salt stress and inoculation effects on nodulation and growth of forage cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv. Baladi), experiments were conducted under laboratory, greenhouse and field conditions. Six isolates were tested for salt tolerance by culturing in liquid medium supplemented with 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 g L-1 NaCl and for their nodulation and N2-fixation abilities under different soil  salinity (1.87, 3.16, 5.88, 9.12 and 12.14 dS m-1), were evaluated, followed by application of  single and dual inoculation with the two selected halo-tolerant isolates on the growth dynamics in salt-affected soils (9.12 dS m-1), under normal and saline irrigation water during 2016 and 2017 seasons.

In liquid medium supplemented with 30 g L-1 NaCl, results showed that isolate of SARS-Rh5 was the most tolerant to grow compared to the others. In respect to the inoculation, the highest values of plant height (20.26 and 20.73 cm plant-1), dry weight of plant (1.08 and 1.11 g plant-1), dry weight of nodules (0.056 and 0.056 g plant-1), and nitrogen content (22.26 and 23.82 mg plant-1), were recorded by SARS-Rh3 and SARS-Rh5 isolates compared to other isolates and control, respectively. 

In a field trial, a highly significant increase caused by dual inoculation with SARS-Rh3 + SARS-Rh5 (T4), in nodulation, growth and yield compared to single inoculation treatments and control. Also, an increase of 30% in K+ content and 45% in K+/Na+ ratio but reached to the reduction of 10% in Na+ content were noticed during the two growing seasons.

So that, the inoculation of cowpea plants grown under soil salinity conditions with tolerant Bradyrhizobiumis very urgent to help the plant to circumvent the unfavourable conditions.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Studies on Leaf and Stem Extracts of Solanum erianthum

T. T. Alawode, L. Lajide, B. J. Owolabi, M. T. Olaleye, B. T. Ogunyemi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/39911

Aims: The current study examines the leaves and stem extracts of Solanum erianthum for antimicrobial activities.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology Akure between September 2014 and July 2015.

Methodology: The extracts were screened for activity against bacterial (Staphylococcus aureusEscherichia coliBacillus subtilisPseudomonas aeruginosaSalmonella typhi and Klebisidlae pneumonae) and fungal (Candida albicansAspergillus nigerPenicillium notatum and Rhizopus stolonifer) organisms at concentrations between 6.25 and 200 mg/ml. Antimicrobial assays were carried out using agar diffusion method. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the extracts were determined.

Results: Of all the extracts tested, the hexane extracts of the leaves and stem of S. erianthum had the highest activities against all the test organisms. The MIC values of both hexane extracts ranged between 1.25 mg/ml and 5.00 mg/ml.

Conclusion: This result corroborates the traditional usage of the plant for the treatment of microbial infections.