Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Economic Impact of Bovine Fasciolosis at Kampala City Abattoir, Central Uganda

Nambafu Joan, Musisi John Stephen, Mwambi Bashir, James Kiguli, Patrick Orikiriza, Joel Bazira, Herbert Itabangi, Iramiot J. Stanley

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 109-117
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/15274

Aim: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of bovine fasciolosis in indigenous cattle slaughtered in Kampala City abattoir and to compare the diagnostic efficiency of fecal and post mortem examination. The study also assessed the economic impact of bovine fasciolosis associated with liver condemnation in the abattoir and weight loss to the animal.
Methods: A cross sectional, experimental study of bovine fasciolosis was conducted using postmortem liver and fecal examination of slaughtered animals. A total of 511 slaughtered cattle were examined at post mortem and Fasciola species were recorded. The number of eggs per gram of feces was determined using the standard McMaster method (14). The formulae a+b+cto determine the total annual loss was used according to Ogunrinade and Adegoke 1982.
Results: Of the 511 livers and fecal samples examined, 429(84%) and 358(70%) were positive for fasciolosis respectively. The most common Fasciola species affecting the cattle was F. gigantica (73.3%) ,followed by F. hepatica (5.68%). Mixed infections and unidentified or immature forms of Fasciola spp. were present in 0.59%, and 4.31% of cattle, respectively. The prevalence of fasciolosis recorded in this study was higher than that reported by other researchers in Uganda. The study also showed a strong relationship between fecal examination and postmortem findings of liver lesions though postmortem examination may be considered a better diagnostic tool forfasciolosis (k=213, P<0.05). Theabattoir lost a total of 231,186,550,000 Uganda shillings (92,474,620 US Dollars) annually on totally condemned liver.
Conclusion: The prevalence of bovine fasciolosis amongst cattle slaughtered in Kampala City Trader’s abattoir is high. Great economic losses as a result of condemnation of infected livers were incurred, and that F. gigantica is the main species of liver flukes affecting cattle in all districts of Uganda. Local climatic factors, cattle population and the presence of the snail intermediate hosts are probably the main drivers influencing the incidence of the disease in the various districts of the country. This disease therefore deserves serious attention by the various stakeholders in order to promote the beef industry in the study area in particular and in the country in general.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fatal Pulmonary Penicillosis in Camels (Camelus dromedarius)

Elham Abdelbasit Suleiman, Salma Bushra Elmagboal, Fahad Elghazali, Manal Hassan Salih, Omer Mohamed Ahmed

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 118-125
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/13925

Aim: The present study was conducted to investigate the cause of death associated with lung abscesses of dead dromedary camels.
Materials and Methods: Lung biopsy was examined by culturing onto Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) media supplemented with chloramphenicol. Colony developed was microscopically examined using lactophenol cotton blue. Slide culture was performed to identify the isolated fungus. Histopathological study of lung biopsy using Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) and Methenamine silver (Grocott's modification) (GMS) stains was carried to detect the pathological feature and fungal hyphae in lung tissue. The isolate was initially identified by conventional morphological analysis; and confirmed by molecular analysis after amplification of the β-tubulin gene, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the amplicons.
Results: Penicillium citrinum was isolated from lung biopsy of sacrificed dromedary camels. Molecular technique confirmed its identification. Histology of nodular lung lesion showing granulomatous inflammation (H&E) and fungal mycelia on GMS.
Conclusion: The study revealed the first case of P. citrinum isolation from the lung of camel with pulmonary disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aflatoxins Investigation and Mycobiota of Selected Marketed Smoked - Dried Fish Samples in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria and Their Environmental Health Implications

Emmanuel Dayo Fagbohun, Opeyemi Uwangbaoje Lawal

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 126-132
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/16260

Aims: This study was carried out to assess the mycobiota and aflatoxins contamination in selected common smoked-dried fish samples sold at Ojo Oba market in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria and their environmental health implications.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria, between March 2012 and February, 2013.
Methodology: Smoked dried fish (Bonga, Cat, Wet African Shad, Butter and Sole) were randomly sampled and purchased from five different marketing sites located at Ojo Oba main market in Ado Ekiti town, Ekiti State, Fifty samples, ten from each related species were analysed. Mycological analysis was done with Potato Dextrose agar using direct plating, washing and dilution methods while the fungi were identified using standard procedure. The moisture content of the fish samples were determined by oven drying at 105ºC for 41/2 h. The aflatoxin extraction, quantitative and qualitative determination was carried out as previously described while the results were analysed using Duncan multiple range test.
Results: Eleven different fungal species belonging to six genera were found to be associated with the smoked dried fish samples from the markets sites. The fungal species are Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, A. tereus, A. flavus, Absidia sp., Rhizopus sp., Penicillium sp., Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium italicum, Mucorsp and Fusarium moniliformis. Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium sp. had the highest rate of occurrence among the fungi isolated. Aflatoxin B1 and G1 was found in Cat fish (Gymnallabes typhus), West African Shad (Ilisha africana), Sole fish (Cynoglossus browni) while it was not detected in the rest. The aflatoxin B1 and G1 concentration ranged from 2.731 to 4.031 µ and 2.015 to 3.528 µ respectively while the fungal count ranged from 4.7x102 to 9.1x104cfu.g-1. The moisture content ranged from 21.1 to 28.8%.
Conclusion: This study showed that smoked dried fish displayed for sale at different market sites in Ojo Oba market in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria were contaminated with species of fungi and aflatoxin which pose a great threat on the health of the consumers. However, fish samples should be well smoked and dried to reduce the moisture content, the samples for sale should be kept in a covered container or show glass to reduce settling of droplets and spores, gloves should be worn by wholesalers and retailers to reduce direct inoculation and storage in a well ventilated environment to reduce contaminations.

Open Access Original Research Article

- 251 A/T Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of Interleukin 8 and Susceptibility to Acute Myocardial Infarction

Hussain A. Yamany, Sahar A. M. Ali, Mahmoud K. Ahmed

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 133-142
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/16051

Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide A well-characterized IL8 gene single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position −251 A/T is the only one known to influence its expression and was associated with several diseases.

Aim: To investigate the possible correlation of the −251 A/T polymorphism of IL-8 gene with susceptibility to Acute Myocardial infarction and its correlation with Plasma IL-8 levels in two case-control populations, the Saudi and Egyptian populations.
Methods: 20 AMI patients and 20 asymptomatic controls from Saudi population in addition to 20 AMI patients and 20 asymptomatic controls from Egyptian population were included in the current study. The IL-8 plasma level was assayed using the human IL-8 Quantikine ELISA Kit. The IL-8 −251 A/T genotypes were determined by using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP).
Results: Patients with AMI were in old age and had a significantly higher number of cardiovascular risk factors (i.e. male gender, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipedemia and smoking) with higher level of CKMB, troponin and plasma level of IL-8 with definite ECG diagnosis of AMI as compared to asymptomatic controls. The IL-8 -251 A/T polymorphism and Plasma IL-8 level were significantly higher in the AMI patients than asymptomatic controls (P < 0.001) in both Saudi and Egyptian populations with AA genotype carriers having significantly higher levels than AT or TT genotypes.
Conclusion: Our findings suggested that the IL-8 gene polymorphisms may play an important role in susceptibility of AMI, and patients with AA genotype have higher levels of IL-8 compared to individuals with AT or TT genotypes in that sample of both Saudi and Egyptian populations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Potential of Ethyl-Acetate Extracts of Marine Streptomyces spp. AIAH-10 against Drug Resistant Escherichia coli

Md. Anwarul Haque, Ashish Kumar Sarker, Mohammad Sayful Islam, Md. Anwar Ul Islam

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 143-150
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/15275

The rapid increase in drug resistance among bacteria is a public health challenge in the 21st century. To combat drug resistance, searching for new broad-spectrum antibiotics is urgent and marine microbial flora may be a potential source. The present study was designed to isolate marine actinomycetes strains (AIAH-01 to AIAH-29) from the soil sediments of different locations of the sundarbans mangrove forest, Bangladesh by serial dilution method. Primary screening of antimicrobial activity was performed by cross plate technique and AIAH-10 was undertaken for further analysis due to its potential activity against a number of pathogenic bacteria. On the basis of morphological, cultural, biochemical and cell composition analysis, AIAH-10 belonged to Streptomyces spp. Secondary metabolites of AIAH-10 exhibited significant activity (with zone sizes of 15 mm and 12 mm) against ciprofloxacin and azithromycin induced resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) respectively (50 μg extracts/disc). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of extracts against ciprofloxacin and azithromycin induced resistant E. coli was found to be 16 and 32 μg/ml respectively. Time-kill profile of the extracts also revealed its considerable antimicrobial activity. Therefore it may be concluded that the marine Streptomyces spp. AIAH-10 isolated from the sundarbans mangrove forest, Bangladesh produces bioactive compounds that can be applied against resistant and multi-drug resistant pathogens.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antifungal Efficacies of Ethyl Acetate Fractions of Mitracarpus villosus from Abuja, Nigeria

M. I. Abohq, B. O. Olayinka, G. O. Adeshina, P. Oladosu, K. Ibrahim

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 151-158
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/15051

Introduction: The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases is as old as man. The development of synthetic (orthodox) drugs led to a decline in the use of herbs however in the past few decades, there has been an increase in the use of medicinal plants, especially in developing countries. Several reports have shown that herbal medicines are well tolerated when compared with synthetic drugs. Over eighty percent of the population in Africa, most especially West Africa, has been reported to depend on medicinal plants for the treatment of infections and diseases.
Aims: The main objective of this study is to assess the anti-fungal potentials of the ethyl acetate extract and fractions of the aerial parts of Mitracarpus villosus (Sw.) DC from Abuja, Nigeria.
Methods: The powdered plant was extracted successively and exhaustively with hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water. Thirty fractions were obtained from the extract using the bioassay-guided fractionation by means of column chromathographic technique. Antifungal activities of the ethyl acetate extract and fractions of M. villosus against clinical isolates of Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton verrucosum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger were investigated using agar diffusion and micro broth dilution methods.
Results: All the fractions showed good antifungal activity against test fungi. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the extract and fractions ranged between 250 - 4000 µg / ml while the minimum fungicidal concentration of the ethyl acetate extract and fractions against the test organisms were found to fall between 500 – 16000 µg / ml.
Conclusion: The plant promises to hold good potentials for development of novel antifungal drug.